Let me guess.
You might be thinking:
"Self-esteem, isn't that something you're born with?"
Yes and no.
You probably know of some people who have it all: they give a mind-blowing presentation on the fly, derive pleasure from the fact that difficult questions come up afterwards, and then ask a co-worker out for dinner in front of the whole group.
I'm exaggerating a bit.
But still: you know people who have very high self-esteem right? And you know some people with low(er) self-esteem as well...
In fact, having very low self-esteem can be devastating to your life.
Think about all the opportunities you've missed because you hesitated, think about all the times you've sabotaged yourself because you thought you were "not good enough", and think about how often you're plagued about thinking back of these moments.
Simply put, without self-esteem life can be vulnerable.
I'm not preaching gloom and doom though.
My message is positive.
Even though having low self-esteem makes everything in life more difficult: social situations, becoming successful, creating the right body image, and experiencing happiness, you can change that situation.
Stay tuned to find out how...
So you might be thinking: "what's self-esteem anyway?"
I'll tell you:
I define self-esteem as to how you value yourself in comparison to others.
With high self-esteem, you're thus judging yourself to be of "higher value". What that means, I'll work out in this blog post.
Different types of self-esteem exist, which makes matters more difficult, unfortunately,
You've got a level of self-esteem that you automatically and subconsciously assume, and self-esteem that you allocate to yourself upon reflection - the latter is displayed in action.
Even though you can observe that someone seems to have very high self-esteem that person might thus still be troubled on the inside.
Additionally, self-esteem can be more stable - as in more unconditional - or more defensive instead - in which case you're more aggressive in protecting what others think about you.
I consider the defensive instantiation not being true self-esteem because it comes with issues of its own.
In this first instalment of a 3-part series, I'll work out:
In the last section, I conclude.
The next two installments of this series venture into topics such as the side-effects of low-self esteem, strategies for improving self-esteem, self-compassion and how you can develop it, the downsides of high self-esteem, etcetera.
It's going to be a great ride!
Because let's face it:
Almost everyone wants the benefits of the right types of self-esteem, such as lowered stress, better coping with disease, higher quality social relationships, self-control, assertiveness, and especially greater overall happiness.
Take your first step to a better life today:
Read this full blog post series.
Everyone deserves a better life...
You do too...
Here we go:
Let's first make sure you and I are talking about the same thing with the words "self-esteem". In fact, you may have heard many terms that are often assumed to have roughly the same meaning:
Self-esteem, (self-)confidence, (self-)compassion, (self-)respect, self-assurance, self-regard, and self-image.
These words do not have the same meaning.
I'll (mostly) be talking about self-esteem.
I'll also give you my own definition of the word "self-esteem". That definition is very simple:
Self-esteem is how you judge your own self-worth.
Let me explain...
If you judge yourself to be of great value you're having "high self-esteem. If you judge that you're of lower value, on the contrary, you've got "low self-esteem".
I know what you're thinking:
"how do you define "worth" or "value" in turn?"
You value yourself by comparing how well you are doing compared to others. With high self-esteem, you're judging that you do well compared to other people in life (in general).
(you'll soon see that the full story is more complicated though)
High-self esteem - traditionally interpreted - is thus paired with the judgment that you are generally worthy and competent. Low self-esteem is thus necessarily characterized by a self-judgment of (some) inferiority.
(Advanced explanation: I know the sentence of "doing well compared to other people" can still be interpreted as semantically-vague. Nevertheless, I do assume that giving definitions lead to an infinite regress that cannot be solved - I consider absolute linguistic certainty an illusion.)
Under that theory, self-esteem becomes a "self-fulfilling prophecy". Why? This theory presupposes that having more self-esteem improves your life, which subsequently improves your self-esteem again.
The underlying assumption is that you need self-esteem first.
I do not completely agree with that assessment.
If self-esteem would be purely subjective, you could be a total failure in life and yet have extremely high self-esteem. While that situation does occur quite often, I do not think that self-esteem is fully a matter of subjective evaluation.
Instead, I think it's essential to understand that we build and lose self-esteem based on our interactions in the world. I thus assume that there's always at least a sufficient reason - or root cause - for having either low or high self-esteem.
Let's say you (try to) learn flying a plane.
If you succeed in your first plane flight, your self-esteem will improve somewhat (even though you may already have irrationally high self-esteem levels.) If I crash the plane instead, your self-esteem will probably take a hit, even if it's just for a while.
Success generally builds self-esteem, while failure does the opposite.
Self-esteem is thus based on 1) your interactions with the world; 2) your self-judgments.
How you judge yourself thereby becomes very important, as your self-judgments change how you interact with that world.
Under the definition I just gave, judging myself to lower than is deserved will create problems with my interactions with the world. Going back to the example of flying an airplane, low self-esteem may prevent me from flying at all even though I might be perfectly capable.
Let's talk about judgment some more:
Human beings judge themselves (almost) automatically - it's very hard to fully stop judging yourself.
Instead of stopping all self-judgment, in this blog post I'm claiming you need the correct self-judgments.
(In the past, I've written an epic guide on mindfulness, wherein you also develop an acceptance skill that helps you let go of some unproductive ways of judging yourself.)
Self-judgment can be productive or can be unproductive, and everything in between.
So when are self-judgments productive or unproductive anyway?
I'll tell you: remember the plane crash example I just talked about?
Let's say I crash that plane, and I judge that I'm an amazing pilot anyway. That judgment would be very unproductive for my future self. Why? That self-judgment would set me up for failure in the future.
Judging yourself correctly, however, can increase how well you're doing in life - and your health.
Let's say I'm anxious when going door to door in a sales job, but nevertheless, succeed in getting my first sales. If I correctly judge I'm capable in that instance, my anxiety will get lowered, and I set myself up for more success in the future.
Overall, self-esteem thus determines how you judge yourself.
Correct self-judgments create more balance.
Self-esteem is central to life.
The 20th-century psychologist Abraham Maslow described self-esteem one of the most important psychological needs of human beings - at least after your needs such as food, water, housing, security, and social relationships were met.
Maslow was not the first psychologist to deal with self-esteem though: the concept was actually invented in the 19th century by the famous psychologist William James.
From the perspective of an intellectual tradition, of course, the topics of self-judgment and self-evaluations have a much longer history.
The Iliad - an ancient Greek epic poem - frequently considers the term "hubris". Hubris is an excessive form of pride and exaggerated self-opinion that ultimately leads to the downfall of a person.
Hubris is an over-valuation of oneself.
In ancient Greek thought, esteeming yourself too highly expressed as hubris would upset the world order.
Gods would punish those who were hubristic.
(Side-joke: I guess my time for punishment has yet to come)
Excessive self-valuations - which is now commonly referred to as having extremely high self-esteem - have been met with scepticism throughout history.
In Roman times, for instance, victorious generals were paraded through the streets while a slave whispered in their ear that they are "just a man".
Self-judgment thus has a rich intellectual history, even though the specific term "self-esteem" has only been in use for over 100 years.
Hopefully, by seeing the two examples I've just given above, you're getting the hint that I do not think that more self-esteem is always better - more on that topic later. As you'll learn, moreover, very low self-esteem is also problematic in health (and life) as well.
Fortunately, you've got access to modern science to tackle that problem.
That debate has been going on for several decades.
Different types of self-esteem exist, such as your individually expressed self-esteem, that which is related to relationships, and the self-esteem of groups.
Simply put, you derive some self-esteem from your own "unique" qualities, some from your direct social relationships, and some from the groups which you belong to.
I'll only consider the first two options in this blog post.
Furthermore, your self-esteem also depends on the context in which you are situated.
Don't believe me?
Just look at a group of soccer hooligans: they're off the charts confident in a group setting - believing they can do anything - but might say "yes master" when their wife asks them to handle the garbage.
Okay, I'm exaggerating but you get the point...
Important disclaimer: while I distinguish between "high self-esteem" and "low self-esteem", in reality, there's a large continuum between the two.
In other words, there's no overly-simplistic dichotomy to be found here.
My self-esteem may be located on the extreme low end of the spectrum, may be average, somewhat high, extremely high, and irrationally high, and everything in between.
How do is your self-esteem scientifically measured?
We don't - at least, not fully reliable:
Self-esteem assessments are often subjective and measured by a self-reported scale that's filled out. As of this moment, there is no completely valid and reliable objective criterion available to assess your self-esteem levels.[315; 316; 317; 318]
The best case scenario is that you'd score high on both explicit and implicit self-esteem, self-liking, and secure self-esteem.
Lastly, (your view of) self-esteem additionally depends on the society you were born in.
In the West, self-esteem is more achievement-oriented, while in Eastern societies "being worthy" within a community matters more. Both conceptions of self-esteem have their upsides and downsides.
The upside of the Western conception is that you're more likely to achieve self-esteem on your own terms, but its downside is that you might end up with a lower self-image if you don't succeed in life.
The upside of the Eastern conception, on the contrary, is that there's less pressure on yourself as an individual--the downside is that you'll have less freedom to achieve complete self-fulfillment by yourself.
Again, even in the West, however, self-esteem has not always been viewed positively. Besides the examples of ancient history I gave earlier, religious traditions often consider what is now known as "self-esteem" as an unwanted vice because it counters humility.
Excessive pride comes to mind as a vice that's closely related to self-esteem.
Now that I've given you the definition in this section, there's one remaining question:
Are you ready to roll?
One more thing first:
I include the following disclaimer at the beginning of each and every blog post:
I'll always recommend you consider the low-hanging fruits of health first - which is true in the case of self-esteem as well.
Don't assume that working on your self-esteem alone makes you fundamentally healthy.
Instead, focus on making sure you get adequate sunlight every day, avoiding artificial light at night, conquering chronic stress, getting enough magnesium, and prioritize optimizing your sleep quality.
After you're doing these things, start "worrying" about your self-esteem. If you've got health problems, your self-esteem should not be prioritized in most instances.
Let's now dig into this fascinating topic of self-esteem.
Ready for a tour de force?
Before I tell you about whether changing self-esteem is possible, let's consider another classic question:
Do you first need to act as if you have high self-esteem to build up real self-esteem, or will you only act as if you've got self-esteem after you build it?
That question sounds kind of silly so hang on.
Let me give you some examples:
Did your alcoholic neighbor first start drinking and then develop low self-esteem, or did low self-esteem cause his problem?
Did you first successfully present to a big audience, and then gain greater self-esteem in presenting, or did you just act as if you had high self-esteem, and then develop that self-esteem internally?
Did you first accept mistreatment by your colleagues because you had low-self esteem, or low self-esteem precede the mistreatment?
Did growing up in poverty lower your self-esteem so that you're still having financial difficulties today, or does your self-esteem keep you in poverty for decades?
The answer to these questions kind of matters. If the right actions precede self-esteem, you can just "fake it till you make it".
Why that question anyhow?
Let me explain:
In the past, I've written a blog post on how increasing your happiness levels grow your success. The scientific consensus thus tells us that happiness precedes and causes success, contrary to what many people believe.
The blog post has the fortunate message that you can (partially) influence your happiness levels through your actions. Even if you're (genetically) born with lower happiness levels, you're not doomed.
A same type of dynamic applies here: if you've got low self-esteem today, are you stuck with that outcome for a lifetime?
I've got good news:
The simple answer is "no".
In fact, your self-esteem even naturally changes over time, without any action on your part.
You can, of course, deviate from that path end up with lower (or higher) self-esteem due to events during your lifetime.
A traumatic experience, such as physical abuse when you were younger, can leave a lasting (negative) impact on your self-esteem. If your parents divorced or if you were neglected, problems can also ensue - depending on how such situations were handled.
Some other actions build self-esteem - such actions start early in life:
Telling your kid that you love them unconditionally gives them ammunition to combat negative moments in life.
Children's environment contributes immensely to their development of self-esteem. When children have a bad relationship with their parents, for example, closeness to their peers can partially make up for that deficit.
(Girls are more affected by their relationship with their mother than boys. There's thus lots of individual variation.)
Once you get older, high (or low) self-esteem is not guaranteed either.
A devastating illness or losing the love of your life can have a tremendous impact. You may end up with a sense that (your control over) life "is not up to you".
What builds self-esteem also changes throughout the years: as a kid, parental relationships are most important, as a young adult education becomes more essential, and as a senior the absence of illness is.
Overall, many situations can thus influence your self-esteem trajectory in life.
I get it: if you've won the "natural lottery" in the looks department that relationship is unfortunate instead.
You will nevertheless rate your own self-esteem higher when they're more physically attractive--the problem is that outside observers will not.
Self-esteem thus remains partially subjective.
Consider this argument of why beauty does not necessarily build self-esteem:
Our self-esteem also increases massively during our 20s to 50s, even though most of us don't get any prettier during these years.
Being admired for your beauty:
a common source of delusion...
Nevertheless, self-esteem can work like a healthy virtuous cycle - which is what you'll be after in this article.
In other words, having self-esteem can work as a self-fulfilling prophecy. An absence of self-esteem, however, leads to the opposite direction: a downwards spiral - a destructive self-fulfilling prophecy.
But wait: "you've just told me that self-esteem does not necessarily work as a self-fulfilling prophecy?"
The point is that self-esteem can work as a self-fulfilling prophecy - that upward spiral is what we're after in this article.
The question then becomes: in what cases is increasing your self-esteem warranted, and in which cases are that increase unwarranted?
I'll get back to that question later...
Lastly, how realistic is it to change your self-esteem?
Remember that your implicit self-esteem is your subconscious and automatic valuation of yourself, and your secure self-esteem depends more on your more unconditional self-evaluation instead of what other people think of you.
Nonetheless, your overall self-esteem can indeed change - I'll give you several strategies in section five to do so.
Regarding chicken and egg question: I don't think you need to worry about whether you first need to increase self-esteem to improve your behaviour or whether to take the right actions to increase self-esteem.
The bottom-line is that self-esteem can be improved, and I'll tell you how to do so in the correct fashion.
First, however, I'll tell you everything you need to know about low self-esteem and its characteristics. That topic will come in the coming blog post installments in this series though.
For now, let's conclude:
Hopefully, you like this journey...
I've just defined self-esteem in this blog post as "how you value yourself in comparison to others." I'm very well aware that such a definition can be very problematic to some. And yet, during the subsequent instalments of this blog post, I'll come back to that definition and hopefully demonstrate to you why it's valid.
The best thing?
If you're relatively young, you can easily improve your self-esteem. Once you're in the winter of your life, however, it probably becomes somewhat more difficult, as the data shows.
Of course, there are always those who break the norm, so I don't want to rule anything out!
I'd like to take you with me in the next instalments of this blog series, where I consider the science of the side-effects of low self esteem, how you can actively improve your self-esteem, the topic of self-compassion and meditation, and much more.
So stay tuned...
Surely, wherever you're coming from in life, you'll probably recognize the value of self-esteem. I know both those with low and with high self-esteem certainly do!
This is a post by Bart Wolbers. Bart finished degrees in Physical Therapy (B), Philosophy (BA and MA), Philosophy of Science and Technology (MS - Cum Laude), and Clinical Health Science (MS), and is currently a health consultant at Alexfergus.com.
 Taormina RJ, Gao JH. Maslow and the motivation hierarchy: measuring satisfaction of the needs. Am J Psychol. 2013 Summer;126(2):155-77.
 Kenrick DT, Griskevicius V, ... Schaller M. Renovating the Pyramid of Needs: Contemporary Extensions Built Upon Ancient Foundations. Perspect Psychol Sci. 2010 May;5(3):292-314. doi: 10.1177/1745691610369469.
 Hilbert S, Goerigk S, ... Sarubin N. The Role of Self-Esteem in Depression: A Longitudinal Study. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2018 Apr 25:1-7. doi: 10.1017/S1352465818000243.
 Forrester RL, Slater H, ... Taylor PJ. Self-esteem and non-suicidal self-injury in adulthood: A systematic review. J Affect Disord. 2017 Oct 15;221:172-183. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2017.06.027. Epub 2017 Jun 15.
 Bailey JA. The foundation of self-esteem. J Natl Med Assoc. 2003 May;95(5):388-93.
 McClure AC, Tanski SE, ... Sargent JD. Characteristics associated with low self-esteem among US adolescents.Acad Pediatr. 2010 Jul-Aug;10(4):238-44.e2. doi: 10.1016/j.acap.2010.03.007.
 MacInnes DL. Self-esteem and self-acceptance: an examination into their relationship and their effect on psychological health. J Psychiatr Ment Health Nurs. 2006 Oct;13(5):483-9.
 Pyszczynski T, Greenberg J, ... Schimel J. Why do people need self-esteem? A theoretical and empirical review. Psychol Bull. 2004 May;130(3):435-68.
 Crocker J, Park LE. The costly pursuit of self-esteem. Psychol Bull. 2004 May;130(3):392-414.
 Greenwald AG, Banaji MR. Implicit social cognition: attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychol Rev. 1995 Jan;102(1):4-27.
 Gaertner L, Sedikides C, ... Jackson LE. A motivational hierarchy within: Primacy of the individual self, relational self, or collective self? Journal of Experimental Social Psychology. 2012;48(5):997–1013.
 Sedikides C, Gaertner L, ... Gebauer JE. A three-tier hierarchy of self-potency: Individual self, relational self, collective self. Advances in experimental social psychology. 2013;48(1):235–95.
 Diener E, Diener M. Cross-cultural correlates of life satisfaction and self-esteem. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1995 Apr;68(4):653-63.
 Seligman ME, Csikszentmihalyi M. Positive psychology. An introduction. Am Psychol. 2000 Jan;55(1):5-14.
 Diener E, Oishi S, Lucas RE. National accounts of subjective well-being. Am Psychol. 2015 Apr;70(3):234-42. doi: 10.1037/a0038899.
 Sedikides C, Brewer MB. Individual Self, Relational Self and Collective Self. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press; 2001.
 Harter S, Waters P, Whitesell NR. Relational self-worth: differences in perceived worth as a person across interpersonal contexts among adolescents. Child Dev. 1998 Jun;69(3):756-66.
 Du H, King RB, Chi P. The development and validation of the Relational Self-Esteem Scale. Scand J Psychol. 2012 Jun;53(3):258-64. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.2012.00946.x. Epub 2012 Mar 30.
 Taylor SE, Brown JD. Illusion and well-being: a social psychological perspective on mental health. Psychol Bull. 1988 Mar;103(2):193-210.
 Sowislo JF, Orth U. Does low self-esteem predict depression and anxiety? A meta-analysis of longitudinal studies. Psychol Bull. 2013 Jan;139(1):213-240. doi: 10.1037/a0028931. Epub 2012 Jun 25.
 Du H, King RB, Chi P. Self-esteem and subjective well-being revisited: The roles of personal, relational, and collective self-esteem. PLoS One. 2017 Aug 25;12(8):e0183958. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0183958. eCollection 2017.
 Orth U, Erol RY, Ledermann T, Grob A. Codevelopment of well-being and self-esteem in romantic partners: Disentangling the effects of mutual influence and shared environment. Dev Psychol. 2018 Jan;54(1):151-166. doi: 10.1037/dev0000400. Epub 2017 Sep 21.
 Karatzias A, Chouliara Z, Power K, Swanson V. Predicting general well-being from self-esteem and affectivity: an exploratory study with Scottish adolescents. Qual Life Res. 2006 Sep;15(7):1143-51. Epub 2006 Sep 13.
 Zamani Sani SH, Fathirezaie Z, ... Talepasand S. Physical activity and self-esteem: testing direct and indirect relationships associated with psychological and physical mechanisms. Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat. 2016 Oct 12;12:2617-2625. eCollection 2016.
 Haugen T, Ommundsen Y, Seiler S. The relationship between physical activity and physical self-esteem in adolescents: the role of physical fitness indices. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2013 Feb;25(1):138-53.
 Sonstroem RJ, Harlow LL, Josephs L. Exercise and self-esteem: validity of model expansion and exercise associations. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1994;16(1):29–42
 Alfermann D, Stoll O. Effects of physical exercise on self-concept and well-being. Int J Sport Psychol. 2000;31(1):47–65.
 Barton J, Griffin M, Pretty J. Exercise-, nature- and socially interactive-based initiatives improve mood and self-esteem in the clinical population. Perspect Public Health. 2012 Mar;132(2):89-96.
 Legrand FD. Effects of exercise on physical self-concept, global self-esteem, and depression in women of low socioeconomic status with elevated depressive symptoms. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2014 Aug;36(4):357-65. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2013-0253.
 Barton J, Griffin M, Pretty J. Exercise-, nature- and socially interactive-based initiatives improve mood and self-esteem in the clinical population. Perspect Public Health. 2012 Mar;132(2):89-96.
 Ekeland E, Heian F, Hagen KB. Can exercise improve self esteem in children and young people? A systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br J Sports Med. 2005 Nov;39(11):792-8; discussion 792-8.
 Biddle SJ, Asare M. Physical activity and mental health in children and adolescents: a review of reviews. Br J Sports Med. 2011 Sep;45(11):886-95. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2011-090185. Epub 2011 Aug 1.
 Burgess G, Grogan S, Burwitz L. Effects of a 6-week aerobic dance intervention on body image and physical self-perceptions in adolescent girls. Body Image. 2006 Mar;3(1):57-66. Epub 2005 Nov 17.
 Carraça EV, Markland D, ... Teixeira PJ. Physical activity predicts changes in body image during obesity treatment in women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2012 Aug;44(8):1604-12. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31824d922a.
 Duncan MJ, Al-Nakeeb Y, Nevill AM. Effects of a 6-week circuit training intervention on body esteem and body mass index in British primary school children. Body Image. 2009 Jun;6(3):216-20. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2009.04.003. Epub 2009 May 17.
 Vocks S, Hechler T, Rohrig S, Legenbauer T. Effects of a physical exercise session on state body image: The influence of pre-experimental body dissatisfaction and concerns about weight and shape. Psychol Health. 2009 Jul;24(6):713-28. doi: 10.1080/08870440801998988.
 Liu M, Wu L, Ming Q. How Does Physical Activity Intervention Improve Self-Esteem and Self-Concept in Children and Adolescents? Evidence from a Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Aug 4;10(8):e0134804. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0134804. eCollection 2015.
 Englander-Golden P, Jackson JE, Crane K, Schwarzkopf AB, Lyle PS. Communication skills and self-esteem in prevention of destructive behaviors. Adolescence. 1989 Summer;24(94):481-502.
 Trzesniewski KH, Donnellan MB, ... Caspi A. Low self-esteem during adolescence predicts poor health, criminal behavior, and limited economic prospects during adulthood. Dev Psychol. 2006 Mar;42(2):381-90.
 Woessner G, Schneider S. The role of self-control and self-esteem and the impact of early risk factors among violent offenders. Crim Behav Ment Health. 2013 Apr;23(2):99-112. doi: 10.1002/cbm.1863.
 Alavi HR. The Role of Self-esteem in Tendency towards Drugs, Theft and Prostitution. Addict Health. 2011 Summer-Autumn;3(3-4):119-24.
 Boden JM Fergusson DM, Horwood LJ. Self-esteem and violence: testing links between adolescent self-esteem and later hostility and violent behavior. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2007 Nov;42(11):881-91. Epub 2007 Sep 10.
 de Viggiani N. Unhealthy prisons: exploring structural determinants of prison health. Sociol Health Illn. 2007 Jan;29(1):115-35.
 Moore KE, Tangney JP, Stuewig JB. The Self-Stigma Process in Criminal Offenders. Stigma Health. 2016 Aug;1(3):206-224. Epub 2016 Feb 11.
 Khajehdaluee M, Zavar A, Alidoust M, Pourandi R. The relation of self-esteem and illegal drug usage in high school students. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2013 Nov;15(11):e7682. doi: 10.5812/ircmj.7682. Epub 2013 Nov 5.
 Taylor DN, Del Pilar J. Self-esteem, anxiety, and drug use. Psychol Rep. 1992 Dec;71(3 Pt 1):896-8.
 Rahim M, Patton R. The association between shame and substance use in young people: a systematic review. PeerJ. 2015 Jan 22;3:e737. doi: 10.7717/peerj.737. eCollection 2015.
 Fliege H, Becker J, ... Rose M. Disturbed regulation of self-esteem in patients with overt versus covert self-destructive behaviour. Z Psychosom Med Psychother. 2003;49(2):151-63.
 Richter SS, Brown SA, Mott MA. The impact of social support and self-esteem on adolescent substance abuse treatment outcome. J Subst Abuse. 1991;3(4):371-85.
 Moore S, Laflin MT, Weis DL. The role of cultural norms in the self-esteem and drug use relationship. Adolescence. 1996 Fall;31(123):523-42.
 Wu CS, Wong HT, Shek CH, Loke AY. Multi-dimensional self-esteem and substance use among Chinese adolescents. Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy. 2014 Oct 1;9:42. doi: 10.1186/1747-597X-9-42.
 Hale WJ, Perrotte JK, Baumann MR, Garza RT. Low self-esteem and positive beliefs about smoking: a destructive combination for male college students. Addict Behav. 2015 Jul;46:94-9. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2015.03.007. Epub 2015 Mar 14.
 Tsirigotis K, Gruszczynski W, Lewik-Tsirigotis M. Manifestations of indirect self-destructiveness and methods of suicide attempts. Psychiatr Q. 2013 Jun;84(2):197-208. doi: 10.1007/s11126-012-9239-x.
 Paz V, Nicolaisen-Sobesky E, ... Gradin VB. Effect of self-esteem on social interactions during the Ultimatum Game. Psychiatry Res. 2017 Jun;252:247-255. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.12.063. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
 Hoffman MA, Ushpiz V, Levy-Shiff R. Social support and self-esteem in adolescence. J Youth Adolesc. 1988 Aug;17(4):307-16. doi: 10.1007/BF01537672.
 Gruenewald TL, Kemeny ME, Aziz N, Fahey JL. Acute threat to the social self: shame, social self-esteem, and cortisol activity. Psychosom Med. 2004 Nov-Dec;66(6):915-24.
 Weisbuch M, Sinclair SA, Skorinko JL, Eccleston CP. Self-Esteem Depends on the Beholder: Effects of a Subtle Social Value Cue. J Exp Soc Psychol. 2009 Jan;45(1):143-148.
 de Jong PJ. Implicit self-esteem and social anxiety: differential self-favouring effects in high and low anxious individuals. Behav Res Ther. 2002 May;40(5):501-8.
 Barrera TL,Norton PJ. Quality of life impairment in generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and panic disorder. J Anxiety Disord. 2009 Dec;23(8):1086-90. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2009.07.011. Epub 2009 Jul 14.
 Simon NM, Otto MW, ... Pollack MH. Quality of life in social anxiety disorder compared with panic disorder and the general population. Psychiatr Serv. 2002 Jun;53(6):714-8.
 Denissen JJ, Penke L, Schmitt DP, van Aken MA. Self-esteem reactions to social interactions: evidence for sociometer mechanisms across days, people, and nations. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2008 Jul;95(1):181-96. doi: 10.1037/0022-35126.96.36.199.
 Lincoln KD. Social Support, Negative Social Interactions, and Psychological Well-Being. Soc Serv Rev. 2000 Jun 1;74(2):231-252.
 Kawamichi H, Sugawara SK, ... Sadato N. Increased frequency of social interaction is associated with enjoyment enhancement and reward system activation. Sci Rep. 2016 Apr 19;6:24561. doi: 10.1038/srep24561.
 Wu T, Luo Y, Broster LS, Gu R, Luo YJ. The impact of anxiety on social decision-making: behavioral and electrodermal findings. Soc Neurosci. 2013;8(1):11-21. doi: 10.1080/17470919.2012.694372. Epub 2012 Jun 6.
 Rook KS. The negative side of social interaction: impact on psychological well-being. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1984 May;46(5):1097-1108.
 Cohen S, Wills TA. Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychol Bull. 1985 Sep;98(2):310-57.
 Blazer DG. Social support and mortality in an elderly community population. Am J Epidemiol. 1982 May;115(5):684-94.
 Olaya B, Domènech-Abella J, ... Haro JM. All-cause mortality and multimorbidity in older adults: The role of social support and loneliness. Exp Gerontol. 2017 Dec 1;99:120-126. doi: 10.1016/j.exger.2017.10.001. Epub 2017 Oct 2.
 Laugesen K, Baggesen LM, ... Ehrenstein V. Social isolation and all-cause mortality: a population-based cohort study in Denmark. Sci Rep. 2018 Mar 16;8(1):4731. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-22963-w.
 Krol B, Sanderman R, ... van Leeuwen M. Disease characteristics, level of self-esteem and psychological well-being in rheumatoid arthritis patients. Scand J Rheumatol. 1994;23(1):8-12.
 Carvalho IG, Bertolli ED, ... Pompeo DA. Anxiety, depression, resilience and self-esteem in individuals with cardiovascular diseases. Rev Lat Am Enfermagem. 2016 Nov 28;24:e2836. doi: 10.1590/1518-8345.1405.2836.
 Mikula P, Nagyova I, ... van Dijk JP. Self-esteem, social participation, and quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis. J Health Psychol. 2017 Jul;22(8):984-992. doi: 10.1177/1359105315621778. Epub 2016 Jan 12.
 Juth V, Smyth JM, Santuzzi AM. How do you feel? Self-esteem predicts affect, stress, social interaction, and symptom severity during daily life in patients with chronic illness. J Health Psychol. 2008 Oct;13(7):884-94. doi: 10.1177/1359105308095062.
 Hemati Z, Kiani D. The Relationship between Self-esteem and Quality of Life of Patients with Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura at Isfahan's Sayed Al-Shohada Hospital, Iran, in 2013. Int J Hematol Oncol Stem Cell Res. 2016 Apr 1;10(2):79-84.
 Forthofer MS, Janz NK, Dodge JA, Clark NM. Gender differences in the associations of self esteem, stress and social support with functional health status among older adults with heart disease.J Women Aging. 2001;13(1):19-37.
 Cohen M, Mansoor D, Langut H, Lorber A. Quality of life, depressed mood, and self-esteem in adolescents with heart disease. Psychosom Med. 2007 May;69(4):313-8. Epub 2007 May 17.
 Stamatakis KA, Lynch J, ... Kaplan GA. Self-esteem and mortality: prospective evidence from a population-based study. Ann Epidemiol. 2004 Jan;14(1):58-65.
 Nazik H, Nazik S, Gul FC. Body Image, Self-esteem, and Quality of Life in Patients with Psoriasis. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2017 Sep-Oct;8(5):343-346. doi: 10.4103/idoj.IDOJ_503_15.
 Zashikhina A, Hagglof B. Self-esteem in adolescents with chronic physical illness vs. controls in Northern Russia. Int J Adolesc Med Health. 2014;26(2):275-81. doi: 10.1515/ijamh-2013-0507.
 Seigel WM, Golden NH, ... Sacker IM. Depression, self-esteem, and life events in adolescents with chronic diseases. J Adolesc Health Care. 1990 Nov;11(6):501-4.
 Pradhan PV, Shah H, ... Ghaisas P. Psychopathology and self-esteem in chronic illness. Indian J Pediatr. 2003 Feb;70(2):135-8.
 Revenson TA, Schiaffino KM, Majerovitz SD, Gibofsky A. Social support as a double-edged sword: the relation of positive and problematic support to depression among rheumatoid arthritis patients. Soc Sci Med. 1991;33(7):807-13.
 Brenner GF, Norvell NK, Limacher M. Supportive and problematic social interactions: a social network analysis. Am J Community Psychol. 1989 Dec;17(6):831-6.
 Ingersoll-Dayton B, Morgan D, Antonucci T. The effects of positive and negative social exchanges on aging adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1997 Jul;52(4):S190-9.
 Okun MA, Keith VM. Effects of positive and negative social exchanges with various sources on depressive symptoms in younger and older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 1998 Jan;53(1):P4-20.
 Ray C. Positive and negative social support in a chronic illness. Psychol Rep. 1992 Dec;71(3 Pt 1):977-8.
 Fiore J, Becker J, Coppel DB. Social network interactions: a buffer or a stress. Am J Community Psychol. 1983 Aug;11(4):423-39.
 Pagel MD, Erdly WW, Becker J. Social networks: we get by with (and in spite of) a little help from our friends. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1987 Oct;53(4):793-804.
 Stephens MA, Kinney JM, Norris VK, Ritchie SW. Social networks as assets and liabilities in recovery from stroke by geriatric patients. Psychol Aging. 1987 Jun;2(2):125-9.
 Lepore SJ. Social conflict, social support, and psychological distress: evidence of cross-domain buffering effects. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1992 Nov;63(5):857-67.
 Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Dyer CS, Shuttleworth EC. Upsetting social interactions and distress among Alzheimer's disease family care-givers: a replication and extension. Am J Community Psychol. 1988 Dec;16(6):825-37.
 Rauktis ME, Koeske GF, Tereshko O. Negative social interactions, distress, and depression among those caring for a seriously and persistently mentally ill relative. Am J Community Psychol. 1995 Apr;23(2):279-99.
 Schuster TL, Kessler RC, Aseltine RH Jr. Supportive interactions, negative interactions, and depressed mood. Am J Community Psychol. 1990 Jun;18(3):423-38.
 Davis AA, Rhodes JE, Hamilton-leaks J. When both parents may be a source of support and problems: an analysis of pregnant and parenting female African American adolescents' relationships with their mothers and fathers. J Res Adolesc. 1997;7(3):331-48.
 Guillon MS, Crocq MA, Bailey PE. The relationship between self-esteem and psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Eur Psychiatry. 2003 Mar;18(2):59-62.
 Pastore V,Colombo K, ... Strazzer S. Psychological problems, self-esteem and body dissatisfaction in a sample of adolescents with brain lesions: A comparison with a control group. Brain Inj. 2015;29(7-8):937-45. doi: 10.3109/02699052.2015.1008045. Epub 2015 May 7.
 Silverstone PH, Salsali M. Low self-esteem and psychiatric patients: Part I - The relationship between low self-esteem and psychiatric diagnosis. Ann Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2003 Feb 11;2(1):2.
 Miller PM, Kreitman NB, Ingham JG, Sashidharan SP. Self-esteem, life stress and psychiatric disorder. J Affect Disord. 1989 Jul-Aug;17(1):65-75.
 Henriksen IO, Ranøyen I, Indredavik MS, Stenseng F. The role of self-esteem in the development of psychiatric problems: a three-year prospective study in a clinical sample of adolescents. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2017 Dec 29;11:68. doi: 10.1186/s13034-017-0207-y. eCollection 2017.
 Sharma A, Sawant N, Shah N. A Study on Psychiatric Disorders, Body Image Disturbances, and Self-Esteem in Patients of Cushing's Disease. Indian J Endocrinol Metab. 2018 Jul-Aug;22(4):445-450. doi: 10.4103/ijem.IJEM_94_18.
 Silverstone PH. Low self-esteem in different psychiatric conditions. Br J Clin Psychol. 1991 May;30 ( Pt 2):185-8.
 Zilioli S, Slatcher RB, ... Zhao G. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span. Psychol Sci. 2016 Sep;27(9):1249-65. doi: 10.1177/0956797616658287. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
 Liu SY, Wrosch C, Miller GE, Pruessner JC. Self-esteem change and diurnal cortisol secretion in older adulthood. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2014 Mar;41:111-20. doi: 10.1016/j.psyneuen.2013.12.010. Epub 2013 Dec 22.
 Zilioli S, Slatcher RB, ... Zhao G. Childhood Adversity, Self-Esteem, and Diurnal Cortisol Profiles Across the Life Span. Psychol Sci. 2016 Sep;27(9):1249-65. doi: 10.1177/0956797616658287. Epub 2016 Aug 1.
 Scarpa A, Luscher KA. Self-esteem, cortisol reactivity, and depressed mood mediated by perceptions of control. Biol Psychol. 2002 Mar;59(2):93-103.
 Zorrilla EP1, DeRubeis RJ, Redei E. High self-esteem, hardiness and affective stability are associated with higher basal pituitary-adrenal hormone levels. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1995;20(6):591-601.
 Kogler L, Seidel EM, ... Derntl B. Impact of self-esteem and sex on stress reactions. Sci Rep. 2017 Dec 8;7(1):17210. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-17485-w.
 Pruessner JC, Baldwin MW, ... Lupien S. Self-esteem, locus of control, hippocampal volume, and cortisol regulation in young and old adulthood. Neuroimage. 2005 Dec;28(4):815-26. Epub 2005 Jul 14.
 Hubbs A, Doyle EI, Bowden RG, Doyle RD. Relationships among self-esteem, stress, and physical activity in college students. Psychol Rep. 2012 Apr;110(2):469-74.
 Martyn-Nemeth P, ... Bryant FB. The relationships among self-esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents. Res Nurs Health. 2009 Feb;32(1):96-109. doi: 10.1002/nur.20304.
 Lee JS, Joo EJ, Choi KS. Perceived stress and self-esteem mediate the effects of work-related stress on depression. Stress Health. 2013 Feb;29(1):75-81. doi: 10.1002/smi.2428. Epub 2012 May 18.
 Adams JA, Weaver SJ. Self-esteem and perceived stress in young adolescents with chronic disease. Unexpected findings. J Adolesc Health Care. 1986 May;7(3):173-7.
 Dolenc P. Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Coping with Stress in Secondary School Students in Relation to Involvement in Organized Sports. Zdr Varst. 2015 Jun 9;54(3):222-9. doi: 10.1515/sjph-2015-0031. eCollection 2015 Sep.
 Orth U, Robins RW, Widaman KF. Life-span development of self-esteem and its effects on important life outcomes. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2012 Jun;102(6):1271-88. doi: 10.1037/a0025558. Epub 2011 Sep 26.
 Orth U, Maes J, Schmitt M. Self-esteem development across the life span: a longitudinal study with a large sample from Germany. Dev Psychol. 2015 Feb;51(2):248-59. doi: 10.1037/a0038481. Epub 2014 Dec 8.
 Wagner J, Hoppmann C, Ram N, Gerstorf D. Self-esteem is relatively stable late in life: the role of resources in the health, self-regulation, and social domains. Dev Psychol. 2015 Jan;51(1):136-49. doi: 10.1037/a0038338.
 Silvera DH, Bergersen TD, ... Holte A. Analyzing the relation between self-esteem and eating disorders: differential effects of self-liking and self-competence. Eat Weight Disord. 1998 Jun;3(2):95-9.
 Silverstone PH. Is chronic low self-esteem the cause of eating disorders? Med Hypotheses. 1992 Dec;39(4):311-5.
 Silverstone PH. Low self-esteem in eating disordered patients in the absence of depression. Psychol Rep. 1990 Aug;67(1):276-8.
 Lindeman AK. Self-esteem: its application to eating disorders and athletes. Int J Sport Nutr. 1994 Sep;4(3):237-52.
 Geller J, Johnston C, ... Birmingham CL. Shape- and weight-based self-esteem and the eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord. 1998 Nov;24(3):285-98.
 Abraham SF. Dieting, body weight, body image and self-esteem in young women: doctors' dilemmas. Med J Aust. 2003 Jun 16;178(12):607-11.
 Cochrane G. Role for a sense of self-worth in weight-loss treatments: helping patients develop self-efficacy. Can Fam Physician. 2008 Apr;54(4):543-7.
 Tiggemann M. Dietary restraint and self-esteem as predictors of weight gain over an 8-year time period. Eat Behav. 2004 Jul;5(3):251-9.
 Hoare P, Cosgrove L. Eating habits, body-esteem and self-esteem in Scottish children and adolescents. J Psychosom Res. 1998 Nov;45(5):425-31.
 Knox E, Muros JJ. Association of lifestyle behaviours with self-esteem through health-related quality of life in Spanish adolescents. Eur J Pediatr. 2017 May;176(5):621-628. doi: 10.1007/s00431-017-2886-z. Epub 2017 Mar 6.
 Kim MJ, Lim YR, Kwak HK. Dietary behaviors and body image recognition of college students according to the self-rated health condition. Nutr Res Pract. 2008 Summer;2(2):107-13. doi: 10.4162/nrp.2008.2.2.107. Epub 2008 Jun 30.
 Murray M, Dordevic AL, Bonham MP. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis: The Impact of Multicomponent Weight Management Interventions on Self-Esteem in Overweight and Obese Adolescents. J Pediatr Psychol. 2017 May 1;42(4):379-394. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsw101.
 Tonsing KN, Ow R. Quality of Life, Self-Esteem, and Future Expectations of Adolescent and Young Adult Cancer Survivors. Health Soc Work. 2018 Feb 1;43(1):15-21. doi: 10.1093/hsw/hlx047.
 Kashdan TB, McKnight PE. Commitment to a purpose in life: an antidote to the suffering by individuals with social anxiety disorder. Emotion. 2013 Dec;13(6):1150-9. doi: 10.1037/a0033278. Epub 2013 Jun 24.
 Vandellen M, Knowles ML, ... Clementz BA. Trait Self-esteem Moderates Decreases in Self-control Following Rejection: An Information-processing Account. Eur J Pers. 2012 Mar;26(2):123-132. Epub 2012 Mar 19.
 Ferrari JR, Stevens EB, Legler R, Jason LA. Hope, Self-Esteem, And Self-Regulatoin: Positive Characteristics Among Men And Women In Reveroy. J Community Psychol. 2012 Apr;40(3):292-300.
 Jiménez MG, Montorio I, Izal M. The association of age, sense of control, optimism, and self-esteem with emotional distress. Dev Psychol. 2017 Jul;53(7):1398-1403. doi: 10.1037/dev0000341. Epub 2017 May 1.
 Hajloo N. Relationships between self-efficacy, self-esteem and procrastination in undergraduate psychology students. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2014 Fall;8(3):42-9.
 Cavallo JV, Holmes JG, ... Wood JV. Managing motivational conflict: how self-esteem and executive resources influence self-regulatory responses to risk. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2012 Sep;103(3):430-51. doi: 10.1037/a0028821. Epub 2012 Jun 4.
 Park IJ, Kim M, Kwon S, Lee HG. The Relationships of Self-Esteem, Future Time Perspective, Positive Affect, Social Support, and Career Decision: A Longitudinal Multilevel Study. Front Psychol. 2018 Apr 26;9:514. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00514. eCollection 2018.
 Nuccitelli C, Valentini A, ... Marchesini G. Sense of coherence, self-esteem, and health locus of control in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus with/without satisfactory metabolic control. J Endocrinol Invest. 2018 Mar;41(3):307-314. doi: 10.1007/s40618-017-0741-8. Epub 2017 Aug 12.
 Vilar GN, Santos LA, Sobral Filho JF. Quality of life, self-esteem and psychosocial factors in adolescents with acne vulgaris. An Bras Dermatol. 2015 Sep-Oct;90(5):622-9. doi: 10.1590/abd1806-4841.201533726.
 James SL, Amato PR. Self-Esteem and the Reproduction of Social Class. Soc Sci Q. 2013 Dec;94(4):933-955.
 Kraus MW, Park JW. The undervalued self: social class and self-evaluation. Front Psychol. 2014 Dec 5;5:1404. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01404. eCollection 2014.
 Booth MZ, Gerard JM. Self-esteem and academic achievement: a comparative study of adolescent students in England and the United States. Compare. 2011 Sep;41(5):629-648.
 Hosseini SN, Mirzaei Alavijeh M, ... Jalilian F. Locus of Control or Self-Esteem; Which One is the Best Predictor of Academic Achievement in Iranian College Students. Iran J Psychiatry Behav Sci. 2016 Mar 15;10(1):e2602. doi: 10.17795/ijpbs-2602. eCollection 2016 Mar.
 Marsh H. Causal Ordering of Academic Self-Concept and Academic Achievement: A Multiwave, Longitudinal Panel Analysis. J Educational Psychology 82(4):646-656 1990.
 Jordan CH, Spencer SJ, ... Correll J. Secure and defensive high self-esteem. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2003 Nov;85(5):969-78.
 Zeigler-Hill V. Discrepancies between implicit and explicit self-esteem: implications for narcissism and self-esteem instability. J Pers. 2006 Feb;74(1):119-44.
 Tafarodi RW, Swann WB. Self-liking and self-competence as dimensions of global self-esteem: initial validation of a measure. J Pers Assess. 1995 Oct;65(2):322-42.
 Stevenson W, Maton KI, Teti DM. School importance and dropout among pregnant adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 1998 May;22(5):376-82.
 Eggert LL, Thompson EA, ... Dicker BG. Preventing adolescent drug abuse and high school dropout through an intensive school-based social network development program. Am J Health Promot. 1994 Jan-Feb;8(3):202-15.
 Vernon ME, Green JA, Frothingham TE. Teenage pregnancy: a prospective study of self-esteem and other sociodemographic factors. Pediatrics. 1983 Nov;72(5):632-5.
 Strauss RS. Childhood obesity and self-esteem. Pediatrics. 2000 Jan;105(1):e15.
 Lin CC. The relationships among gratitude, self-esteem, depression, and suicidal ideation among undergraduate students. Scand J Psychol. 2015 Dec;56(6):700-7. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12252.
 Bernardo ABI, Tan-Mansukhani R, Daganzo MAA. Associations Between Materialism, Gratitude, and Well-Being in Children of Overseas Filipino Workers. Eur J Psychol. 2018 Aug 31;14(3):581-598. doi: 10.5964/ejop.v14i3.1555. eCollection 2018 Aug.
 Bernardo ABI, Tan-Mansukhani R, Daganzo MAA. Associations Between Materialism, Gratitude, and Well-Being in Children of Overseas Filipino Workers. Eur J Psychol. 2018 Aug 31;14(3):581-598. doi: 10.5964/ejop.v14i3.1555. eCollection 2018 Aug.
 Kelly JD 4. Your Best Life: Breaking the Cycle: The Power of Gratitude. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2016 Dec;474(12):2594-2597. Epub 2016 Sep 29.
 Chen HL. Gratitude Enhances Change in Athletes’ Self-Esteem: The Moderating Role of Trust in Coach. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology 26 (3), 2014.
 Peng C, Nelissen RMA, Zeelenberg M. Reconsidering the roles of gratitude and indebtedness in social exchange. Cogn Emot. 2018 Jun;32(4):760-772. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2017.1353484. Epub 2017 Jul 18.
 Di Pierro R, Mattavelli S, Gallucci M. Narcissistic Traits and Explicit Self-Esteem: The Moderating Role of Implicit Self-View. Front Psychol. 2016 Nov 22;7:1815. eCollection 2016.
 Carlson EN, Vazire S, Oltmanns TF. You probably think this paper's about you: narcissists' perceptions of their personality and reputation. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2011 Jul;101(1):185-201. doi: 10.1037/a0023781.
 Rogoza R, Żemojtel-Piotrowska M, Kwiatkowska MM, Kwiatkowska K. The Bright, the Dark, and the Blue Face of Narcissism: The Spectrum of Narcissism in Its Relations to the Metatraits of Personality, Self-Esteem, and the Nomological Network of Shyness, Loneliness, and Empathy. Front Psychol. 2018 Mar 14;9:343. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.00343. eCollection 2018.
 Gabbard GO, Crisp-Han H. The many faces of narcissism. World Psychiatry. 2016 Jun;15(2):115-6. doi: 10.1002/wps.20323.
 Jauk E, Weigle E, ... Neubauer AC. The Relationship between Grandiose and Vulnerable (Hypersensitive) Narcissism. Front Psychol. 2017 Sep 13;8:1600. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01600. eCollection 2017.
 Orth U, Luciano EC. Self-esteem, narcissism, and stressful life events: Testing for selection and socialization. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2015 Oct;109(4):707-21. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000049. Epub 2015 May 25.
 Zeigler-Hill V, Clark CB, Pickard JD. Narcissistic subtypes and contingent self-esteem: do all narcissists base their self-esteem on the same domains? J Pers. 2008 Jul;76(4):753-74. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00503.x. Epub 2008 May 12.
 Hyatt CS, Sleep CE, ... Miller JD. Narcissism and self-esteem: A nomological network analysis. PLoS One. 2018 Aug 1;13(8):e0201088. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0201088. eCollection 2018.
 Broucek FJ. Shame and its relationship to early narcissistic developments. Int J Psychoanal. 1982;63(Pt 3):369-78.
 Ritter K, Vater A,... Roepke S. Shame in patients with narcissistic personality disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2014 Feb 28;215(2):429-37. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2013.11.019. Epub 2013 Nov 26.
 Gildersleeve M. Demystifying paradoxical characteristics of narcissistic personality disorder. Indian J Psychol Med. 2012 Oct;34(4):403-4. doi: 10.4103/0253-7176.108236.
 Baldwin MW, Sinclair L. Self-esteem and "if . . . then" contingencies of interpersonal acceptance. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1996 Dec;71(6):1130-41.
 Ziller RC, Hagey J, Smith MD, Long BH. Self-esteem: a self-social construct. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1969 Feb;33(1):84-95.
 Rasmussen MK, Pidgeon AM. The direct and indirect benefits of dispositional mindfulness on self-esteem and social anxiety. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2011 Mar;24(2):227-33. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2010.515681.
 Xiao Q, Yue C, He W, Yu JY. The Mindful Self: A Mindfulness-Enlightened Self-view. Front Psychol. 2017 Oct 13;8:1752. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01752. eCollection 2017.
 Fennell MJ. Depression, low self-esteem and mindfulness. Behav Res Ther. 2004 Sep;42(9):1053-67.
 Goldin P, Ramel W, Gross J. Mindfulness Meditation Training and Self-Referential Processing in Social Anxiety Disorder: Behavioral and Neural Effects. J Cogn Psychother. 2009 Aug;23(3):242-257.
 Hofmann SG, Asnaani A, ... Fang A. The Efficacy of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy: A Review of Meta-analyses. Cognit Ther Res. 2012 Oct 1;36(5):427-440. Epub 2012 Jul 31.
 Karbasi Amel A, Karbasi Amel S, Erfan A. Effectiveness of Parents-Focused Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms, Obesity and Self-Esteem of Overweight Children with Attention Deficient Hyperactivity Disorder. Adv Biomed Res. 2018 Apr 25;7:73. doi: 10.4103/abr.abr_170_17. eCollection 2018.
 Valenzuela F, Lock J, Le Grange D, Bohon C. Comorbid depressive symptoms and self-esteem improve after either cognitive-behavioural therapy or family-based treatment for adolescent bulimia nervosa. Eur Eat Disord Rev. 2018 May;26(3):253-258. doi: 10.1002/erv.2582. Epub 2018 Feb 15.
 Montgomery P, Taylor TL. Can cognitive-behavioral therapy increase self-esteem among depressed adolescents: a systematic review. Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE): Quality-assessed Reviews.
 Shimotsu S, Horikawa N, ... Hosomi J. Effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral therapy in reducing self-stigma in Japanese psychiatric patients. Asian J Psychiatr. 2014 Aug;10:39-44. doi: 10.1016/j.ajp.2014.02.006. Epub 2014 Mar 1.
 Brinthaupt TM, Benson SA, Kang M, Moore ZD. Assessing the accuracy of self-reported self-talk. Front Psychol. 2015 May 6;6:570. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00570. eCollection 2015.
 Phillips R, Spears MR, ... Stallard P. Could a brief assessment of negative emotions and self-esteem identify adolescents at current and future risk of self-harm in the community? A prospective cohort analysis. BMC Public Health. 2013 Jun 22;13:604. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-604.
 Benjamin CL, Puleo CM,... Kendall PC. History of cognitive-behavioral therapy in youth. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am. 2011 Apr;20(2):179-89. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2011.01.011.
 Sauter FM, Heyne D, Michiel Westenberg P. Cognitive behavior therapy for anxious adolescents: developmental influences on treatment design and delivery. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev. 2009 Dec;12(4):310-35. doi: 10.1007/s10567-009-0058-z.
 Cummings JA, Hayes AM, Cardaciotto L, Newman CF. The Dynamics of Self-Esteem in Cognitive Therapy for Avoidant and Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorders: An Adaptive Role of Self-Esteem Variability? Cognit Ther Res. 2012;36(4):272-281. Epub 2011 Jun 14.
 Davidhizar RE, Shearer R. Increasing self-confidence through self-talk. Home Healthc Nurse. 1996 Feb;14(2):119-22.
 Erkut S, Tracy AJ. Predicting Adolescent Self-Esteem From Participation in School Sports Among Latino Subgroups. Hisp J Behav Sci. 2002 Nov 1;24(4):409-429.
 Eime RM, Young JA, ... Payne WR. A systematic review of the psychological and social benefits of participation in sport for children and adolescents: informing development of a conceptual model of health through sport. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2013 Aug 15;10:98. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-98.
 Berenson KR, Gyurak A, ... Pine DS. Rejection sensitivity and disruption of attention by social threat cues. J Res Pers. 2009 Dec 1;43(6):1064-1072.
 Ayduk O, Gyurak A, Luerssen A. Rejection sensitivity moderates the impact of rejection on self-concept clarity. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2009 Nov;35(11):1467-78. doi: 10.1177/0146167209343969. Epub 2009 Aug 27.
 Peters JR, Eisenlohr-Moul TA, Smart LM. Dispositional mindfulness and rejection sensitivity: The critical role of nonjudgment. Pers Individ Dif. 2016 Apr 1;93:125-129. Epub 2015 Jun 26.
 Stoeber J, Janssen DP. Perfectionism and coping with daily failures: positive reframing helps achieve satisfaction at the end of the day. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2011 Oct;24(5):477-97. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2011.562977. Epub 2011 Jun 12.
 Kelly JD. Your Best Life: Perfectionism--The Bane of Happiness. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Oct;473(10):3108-11. doi: 10.1007/s11999-015-4279-9. Epub 2015 Apr 3.
 Dickinson MJ. Practically perfect in every way: can reframing perfectionism for high-achieving undergraduates impact academic resilience? Studies in Higher Education 40(10) 2015.
 Kiamanesh P, Dieserud G, Haavind H. From a cracking façade to a total escape: maladaptive perfectionism and suicide. Death Stud. 2015 Jan-Jun;39(1-5):316-22. doi: 10.1080/07481187.2014.946625. Epub 2015 Jan 15.
 Kelly JD. Your best life: mindfulness--the end of suffering. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 2015 Feb;473(2):426-9. doi: 10.1007/s11999-014-4086-8. Epub 2015 Jan 9.
 Beekman JB, Stock ML, Howe GW. Stomaching rejection: Self-compassion and self-esteem moderate the impact of daily social rejection on restrictive eating behaviours among college women. Psychol Health. 2017 Nov;32(11):1348-1370. doi: 10.1080/08870446.2017.1324972. Epub 2017 May 5.
 Neff KD. The Role of Self-Compassion in Development: A Healthier Way to Relate to Oneself. Hum Dev. 2009 Jun;52(4):211-214.
 Hall CW, Row KA, Wuensch KL, Godley KR. The role of self-compassion in physical and psychological well-being. J Psychol. 2013 Jul-Aug;147(4):311-23.
 Kelly AC, Vimalakanthan K, Carter JC. Understanding the roles of self-esteem, self-compassion, and fear of self-compassion in eating disorder pathology: an examination of female students and eating disorder patients. Eat Behav. 2014 Aug;15(3):388-91. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.04.008. Epub 2014 May 10.
 Seekis V, Bradley GL, Duffy A. The effectiveness of self-compassion and self-esteem writing tasks in reducing body image concerns. Body Image. 2017 Dec;23:206-213. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.09.003.
 Ferreira C, Pinto-Gouveia J, Duarte C. Self-compassion in the face of shame and body image dissatisfaction: implications for eating disorders. Eat Behav. 2013 Apr;14(2):207-10. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2013.01.005. Epub 2013 Feb 8.
 Rodgers RF, Franko DL, ... Lowy AS. Body image in emerging adults: The protective role of self-compassion. Body Image. 2017 Sep;22:148-155. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2017.07.003. Epub 2017 Aug 9.
 Braun TD, Park CL, Gorin A. Self-compassion, body image, and disordered eating: A review of the literature. Body Image. 2016 Jun;17:117-31. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2016.03.003. Epub 2016 Mar 31.
 Mantzios M, Egan HH. On the Role of Self-compassion and Self-kindness in Weight Regulation and Health Behavior Change. Front Psychol. 2017 Feb 16;8:229. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00229. eCollection 2017.
 Kelly AC, Vimalakanthan K, Miller KE. Self-compassion moderates the relationship between body mass index and both eating disorder pathology and body image flexibility. Body Image. 2014 Sep;11(4):446-53. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2014.07.005. Epub 2014 Aug 9.
 Homan KJ, Tylka TL. Self-compassion moderates body comparison and appearance self-worth's inverse relationships with body appreciation. Body Image. 2015 Sep;15:1-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bodyim.2015.04.007. Epub 2015 May 16.
 Bluth K, Blanton PW. The influence of self-compassion on emotional well-being among early and older adolescent males and females. J Posit Psychol. 2015;10(3):219-230.
 Toplu-Demirtaş E, Kemer G, Pope AL, Moe JL. Self-compassion matters: The relationships between perceived social support, self-compassion, and subjective well-being among LGB individuals in Turkey. J Couns Psychol. 2018 Apr;65(3):372-382. doi: 10.1037/cou0000261.
 Zessin U, Dickhäuser O, Garbade S. The Relationship Between Self-Compassion and Well-Being: A Meta-Analysis. Appl Psychol Health Well Being. 2015 Nov;7(3):340-64. doi: 10.1111/aphw.12051. Epub 2015 Aug 26.
 Brenner RE, Vogel DL, ... Heath PJ. Do self-compassion and self-coldness distinctly relate to distress and well-being? A theoretical model of self-relating. J Couns Psychol. 2018 Apr;65(3):346-357. doi: 10.1037/cou0000257.
 Allen AB, Goldwasser ER, Leary MR. Self-Compassion and Well-being among Older Adults. Self Identity. 2012 Oct;11(4):428-453. Epub 2011 Aug 31.
 Homan KJ, Sirois FM. Self-compassion and physical health: Exploring the roles of perceived stress and health-promoting behaviors. Health Psychol Open. 2017 Sep 14;4(2):2055102917729542. doi: 10.1177/2055102917729542. eCollection 2017 Jul-Dec.
 Zhang Y, Luo X, Che X, Duan W. Protective Effect of Self-Compassion to Emotional Response among Students with Chronic Academic Stress. Front Psychol. 2016 Nov 22;7:1802. eCollection 2016.
 Finlay-Jones AL, Rees CS, Kane RT. Self-Compassion, Emotion Regulation and Stress among Australian Psychologists: Testing an Emotion Regulation Model of Self-Compassion Using Structural Equation Modeling. PLoS One. 2015 Jul 24;10(7):e0133481. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0133481. eCollection 2015.
 Allen AB, Leary MR. Self-Compassion, Stress, and Coping. Soc Personal Psychol Compass. 2010 Feb 1;4(2):107-118.
 Bluth K, Roberson PN, ... Girdler SS. Does Self-compassion Protect Adolescents from Stress? J Child Fam Stud. 2016 Apr;25(4):1098-1109. Epub 2015 Oct 23.
 Ferrari M, Dal Cin M, Steele M. Self-compassion is associated with optimum self-care behaviour, medical outcomes and psychological well-being in a cross-sectional sample of adults with diabetes. Diabet Med. 2017 Nov;34(11):1546-1553. doi: 10.1111/dme.13451. Epub 2017 Sep 11.
 Phelps CL, Paniagua SM, ... Potter JS. The relationship between self-compassion and the risk for substance use disorder. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2018 Feb 1;183:78-81. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2017.10.026. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
 Körner A, Coroiu A, ... Brähler E. The Role of Self-Compassion in Buffering Symptoms of Depression in the General Population. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 2;10(10):e0136598. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0136598. eCollection 2015.
 Atkinson DM, Rodman JL, ... Lim KO. Examining Burnout, Depression, and Self-Compassion in Veterans Affairs Mental Health Staff. J Altern Complement Med. 2017 Jul;23(7):551-557. doi: 10.1089/acm.2017.0087. Epub 2017 Jun 7.
 Lihua Z, Gui C, ... Jian C. Self-Compassion and Confucian Coping as a Predictor of Depression and Anxiety in Impoverished Chinese Undergraduates. Psychol Rep. 2017 Jan 1:33294117700857. doi: 10.1177/0033294117700857.
 Purdie F, Morley S. Self-compassion, pain, and breaking a social contract. Pain. 2015 Nov;156(11):2354-63. doi: 10.1097/j.pain.0000000000000287.
 Hilbert A, Braehler E, ... Zenger M. Self-Compassion as a Resource in the Self-Stigma Process of Overweight and Obese Individuals. v
 Ferrari M, Yap K, ... Ciarrochi J. Self-compassion moderates the perfectionism and depression link in both adolescence and adulthood. PLoS One. 2018 Feb 21;13(2):e0192022. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0192022. eCollection 2018.
 Mehr K, Adams A. Self-Compassion as a Mediator of Maladaptive Perfectionism and Depressive Symptoms in College Students. Journal of College Student Psychotherapy 30(2), 2016.
 Shattell M, Johnson A. Mindful Self-Compassion: How it Can Enhance Resilience. J Psychosoc Nurs Ment Health Serv. 2018 Jan 1;56(1):15-17. doi: 10.3928/02793695-20171219-01.
 Alizadeh S, Khanahmadi S, Vedadhir A, Barjasteh S. The Relationship between Resilience with Self- Compassion, Social Support and Sense of Belonging in Women with Breast Cancer. Asian Pac J Cancer Prev. 2018 Sep 26;19(9):2469-2474.
 Robinson S, Hastings RP, ... Lunsky Y. Self-compassion and psychological distress in parents of young people and adults with intellectual and developmental disabilities. J Appl Res Intellect Disabil. 2018 May;31(3):454-458. doi: 10.1111/jar.12423. Epub 2017 Nov 9.
 Werner KH, Jazaieri H, ... Gross JJ. Self-compassion and social anxiety disorder. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2012;25(5):543-58. doi: 10.1080/10615806.2011.608842. Epub 2011 Sep 6.
 Reyes D. Self-compassion: a concept analysis. J Holist Nurs. 2012 Jun;30(2):81-9. doi: 10.1177/0898010111423421. Epub 2011 Oct 24.
 Twenge J. Generation me: Why today's young Americans are more confident, assertive, entitled – and more miserable than ever before. New York: Free Press; 2006.
 Brion JM, Leary MR, Drabkin AS. Self-compassion and reactions to serious illness: the case of HIV. J Health Psychol. 2014 Feb;19(2):218-29. doi: 10.1177/1359105312467391. Epub 2013 Jan 8.
 Semenchuk BN, Strachan SM, Fortier M. Self-Compassion and the Self-Regulation of Exercise: Reactions to Recalled Exercise Setbacks. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2018 Feb 1;40(1):31-39. doi: 10.1123/jsep.2017-0242. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
 Wagner LK, Schindler S, Reinhard MA. The Positive Facet of Self-compassion Predicts Self-reported Use of and Attitudes toward Desirable Difficulties in Learning. Front Psychol. 2017 Aug 9;8:1353. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01353. eCollection 2017.
 Dundas I, Binder PE, Hansen TGB, Stige SH. Does a short self-compassion intervention for students increase healthy self-regulation? A randomized control trial. Scand J Psychol. 2017 Oct;58(5):443-450. doi: 10.1111/sjop.12385. Epub 2017 Aug 28.
 Sirois FM. A self-regulation resource model of self-compassion and health behavior intentions in emerging adults. Prev Med Rep. 2015 Mar 30;2:218-22. doi: 10.1016/j.pmedr.2015.03.006. eCollection 2015.
 Shin HS, Black DS, ... Pentz MA. Associations among dispositional mindfulness, self-compassion, and executive function proficiency in early adolescents. Mindfulness (N Y). 2016 Dec;7(6):1377-1384. doi: 10.1007/s12671-016-0579-8. Epub 2016 Jul 25.
 de Bruin EI, van der Zwan JE, Bögels SM. A RCT Comparing Daily Mindfulness Meditations, Biofeedback Exercises, and Daily Physical Exercise on Attention Control, Executive Functioning, Mindful Awareness, Self-Compassion, and Worrying in Stressed Young Adults. Mindfulness (N Y). 2016;7(5):1182-1192. doi: 10.1007/s12671-016-0561-5. Epub 2016 Jul 2.
 Alicke MD, Govorun O. The better-than-average effect. The self in social judgment. Psychology Press NY 2005
 Ehrlinger J, Johnson K, ... Kruger J. Why the Unskilled Are Unaware: Further Explorations of (Absent) Self-Insight Among the Incompetent. Organ Behav Hum Decis Process. 2008 Jan 1;105(1):98-121.
 Baumeister RF, Campbell JD, Krueger JI, Vohs KD. Does High Self-Esteem Cause Better Performance, Interpersonal Success, Happiness, or Healthier Lifestyles? Psychol Sci Public Interest. 2003 May;4(1):1-44. doi: 10.1111/1529-1006.01431. Epub 2003 May 1.
 Leary MR, Tate EB, Adams CE, Allen AB, Hancock J. Self-compassion and reactions to unpleasant self-relevant events: the implications of treating oneself kindly. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2007 May;92(5):887-904.
 Neff KD, Vonk R. Self-compassion versus global self-esteem: two different ways of relating to oneself. J Pers. 2009 Feb;77(1):23-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00537.x. Epub 2008 Nov 28.
 Hurley AE. The effects of self-esteem and source credibility on self-denying prophecies. J Psychol. 1997 Nov;131(6):581-94.
 Madon S, Scherr KC, ... Vogel DL. The Role Of The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy In Young Adolescents' Responsiveness To A Substance Use Prevention Program. J Appl Soc Psychol. 2013 Sep 1;43(9):1784-1798.
 Sedikes C. Assessment, Enhancement, and Verification Determinants of the Self-Evaluation Process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 65(2) 1993:317-338
 Swann WB Jr, Stein-Seroussi A, Giesler RB. Why people self-verify. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1992 Mar;62(3):392-401.
 Heine SJ, Lehman DR, Markus HR, Kitayama S. Is there a universal need for positive self-regard? Psychol Rev. 1999 Oct;106(4):766-94.
 Carser D. The defense mechanism of splitting: developmental origins, effects on staff, recommendations for nursing care. J Psychiatr Nurs Ment Health Serv. 1979 Mar;17(3):21-8.
 Burland JA. Splitting as a consequence of severe abuse in childhood. Psychiatr Clin North Am. 1994 Dec;17(4):731-42.
 Critelli JW, Gabriel MT, Ee JS, Neumann KF. Splitting as a predictor of depression. Percept Mot Skills. 1992 Oct;75(2):613-4.
 Siegel JP. Dyadic splitting in partner relational disorders. J Fam Psychol. 2006 Sep;20(3):418-22.
 Andrews PW.The psychology of social chess and the evolution of attribution mechanisms: explaining the fundamental attribution error. Evol Hum Behav. 2001 Jan;22(1):11-29.
 Feilstein E, Klein MS, ... Leitenberg H. Self-esteem and causal attributions for success and failure in children. Cognitive Therapy and Research 9(4) 1985: 381–398.
 Gottman JM. Psychology and the study of marital processes. Annu Rev Psychol. 1998;49:169-97.
 Gottman JM, Levenson RW. Rebound from marital conflict and divorce prediction. Fam Process. 1999 Fall;38(3):287-92.
 Callan MJ, Kay AC, Dawtry RJ. Making sense of misfortune: deservingness, self-esteem, and patterns of self-defeat. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2014 Jul;107(1):142-162. doi: 10.1037/a0036640.
 Malle BF. The actor-observer asymmetry in attribution: a (surprising) meta-analysis. Psychol Bull. 2006 Nov;132(6):895-919.
 Zhang Y, Dong S, ... Fan X. Self-efficacy for self-regulation and fear of failure as mediators between self-esteem and academic procrastination among undergraduates in health professions. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2018 Oct;23(4):817-830. doi: 10.1007/s10459-018-9832-3. Epub 2018 May 29.
 Sagar SS, Stoeber J. Perfectionism, fear of failure, and affective responses to success and failure: the central role of fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2009 Oct;31(5):602-27.
 McGregor HA, Elliot AJ. The shame of failure: examining the link between fear of failure and shame. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2005 Feb;31(2):218-31.
 Gustafsson H, Sagar SS, Stenling A. Fear of failure, psychological stress, and burnout among adolescent athletes competing in high level sport. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2017 Dec;27(12):2091-2102. doi: 10.1111/sms.12797. Epub 2016 Nov 23.
 Stoeber J, Childs JH. The assessment of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism: subscales make a difference. J Pers Assess. 2010 Nov;92(6):577-85. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2010.513306.
 Rice KG, Ashby JS, Gilman R. Classifying adolescent perfectionists. Psychol Assess. 2011 Sep;23(3):563-77. doi: 10.1037/a0022482.
 Stoeber J, Otto K. Positive conceptions of perfectionism: approaches, evidence, challenges. Pers Soc Psychol Rev. 2006;10(4):295-319.
 Curran T, Hill AP. Perfectionism Is Increasing Over Time: A Meta-Analysis of Birth Cohort Differences From 1989 to 2016. Psychol Bull. 2017 Dec 28. doi: 10.1037/bul0000138.
 Houston BK, Kelly KE. Type A behavior in housewives: relation to work, marital adjustment, stress, tension, health, fear-of-failure and self esteem. J Psychosom Res. 1987;31(1):55-61.
 Davis L, Kurzban S, Brekke J. Self-esteem as a mediator of the relationship between role functioning and symptoms for individuals with severe mental illness: a prospective analysis of Modified Labeling theory. Schizophr Res. 2012 May;137(1-3):185-9. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2012.02.003. Epub 2012 Feb 28.
 Moses T. Self-labeling and its effects among adolescents diagnosed with mental disorders. Soc Sci Med. 2009 Feb;68(3):570-8. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.11.003. Epub 2008 Dec 11.
 Bedson J, McCarney R, Croft P. Labelling chronic illness in primary care: a good or a bad thing? Br J Gen Pract. 2004 Dec;54(509):932-8.
 Camp DL, Finlay WM, Lyons E. Is low self-esteem an inevitable consequence of stigma? An example from women with chronic mental health problems. Soc Sci Med. 2002 Sep;55(5):823-34.
 Taylor LM, Hume IR, Welsh N. Labelling and self‐esteem: the impact of using specific vs. generic labels. J Educational Psychology 30(2) 2010.
 Darley JM, Gross PH. A hypothesis-confirming bias in labeling effects. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1983 44.
 Rosenthal R, Jacobson L. Pygmalion in the classroom: Teacher expectation and pupils' intellectual development, 1968, New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston
 Ng B. The Neuroscience of Growth Mindset and Intrinsic Motivation.Brain Sci. 2018 Jan 26;8(2). pii: E20. doi: 10.3390/brainsci8020020.
 Dryden W, Neenan M. Essential Rational Emotive Behaviour Therapy. Wiley 2003.
 Rnic K, Dozois DJ, Martin RA. Cognitive Distortions, Humor Styles, and Depression. Eur J Psychol. 2016 Aug 19;12(3):348-62. doi: 10.5964/ejop.v12i3.1118. eCollection 2016 Aug.
 Cabeleira CM, Steinman SA, ... Teachman BA. Expectancy bias in anxious samples. Emotion. 2014 Jun;14(3):588-601. doi: 10.1037/a0035899. Epub 2014 May 5.
 Somerville LH, Kelley WM, Heatherton TF. Self-esteem Modulates Medial Prefrontal Cortical Responses to Evaluative Social Feedback. Cerebral Cortex, 20 12(1) 2010, 3005–3013.
 Peden AR, Hall LA, Rayens MK, Beebe L. Negative thinking mediates the effect of self-esteem on depressive symptoms in college women. Nurs Res. 2000 Jul-Aug;49(4):201-7.
 Verplanken B, Tangelder Y. No body is perfect: the significance of habitual negative thinking about appearance for body dissatisfaction, eating disorder propensity, self-esteem and snacking. Psychol Health. 2011 Jun;26(6):685-701. doi: 10.1080/08870441003763246. Epub 2011 May 24.
 Lommen MJ, Engelhard IM, ... Arntz A. Reducing emotional reasoning: an experimental manipulation in individuals with fear of spiders. Cogn Emot. 2013;27(8):1504-12. doi: 10.1080/02699931.2013.795482. Epub 2013 May 16.
 Jung N, Wranke C, Hamburger K, Knauff M. How emotions affect logical reasoning: evidence from experiments with mood-manipulated participants, spider phobics, and people with exam anxiety. Front Psychol. 2014 Jun 10;5:570. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00570. eCollection 2014.
 Poggi I, D'Errico F. Feeling Offended: A Blow to Our Image and Our Social Relationships. Front Psychol. 2018 Jan 17;8:2221. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.02221. eCollection 2017.
 Alkozei A, Cooper PJ, Creswell C. Emotional reasoning and anxiety sensitivity: associations with social anxiety disorder in childhood. J Affect Disord. 2014 Jan;152-154:219-28. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2013.09.014. Epub 2013 Sep 20.
 Berle D, Moulds ML,... Brakoulias V. Does emotional reasoning change during cognitive behavioural therapy for anxiety? Cogn Behav Ther. 2016;45(2):123-35. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2015.1115892. Epub 2016 Jan 6.
 Lee H, Ahn JK, Kwon JH. Effects of Self-Image on Anxiety, Judgement Bias and Emotion Regulation in Social Anxiety Disorder. Behav Cogn Psychother. 2018 Apr 25:1-14. doi: 10.1017/S135246581800022X.
 McWilliams LA, Holmberg D. Adult attachment and pain catastrophizing for self and significant other. Pain. 2010 May;149(2):278-83. doi: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.02.019.
 Yalçınkaya-Alkar O. Is self esteem mediating the relationship between cognitive emotion regulation strategies and depression? Current Psychology 2017.
 Grodzinsky E, Walter S, ... Faresjö Å. More negative self-esteem and inferior coping strategies among patients diagnosed with IBS compared with patients without IBS--a case-control study in primary care. BMC Fam Pract. 2015 Jan 28;16:6. doi: 10.1186/s12875-015-0225-x.
 Urzúa A, Ferrer R, ... Caqueo-Urízar A. The mediating effect of self-esteem on the relationship between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being in immigrants. PLoS One. 2018 Jun 21;13(6):e0198413. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0198413. eCollection 2018.
 Baker LR, McNulty JK. When low self-esteem encourages behaviors that risk rejection to increase interdependence: the role of relational self-construal. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2013 Jun;104(6):995-1018. doi: 10.1037/a0032137. Epub 2013 Apr 15.
 Reijntjes A, Thomaes S, ... Telch MJ. Delighted when approved by others, to pieces when rejected: children's social anxiety magnifies the linkage between self- and other-evaluations. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2011 Jul;52(7):774-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2010.02325.x. Epub 2010 Oct 6.
 Hosogi M, Okada A, ... Watanabe K. Importance and usefulness of evaluating self-esteem in children. Biopsychosoc Med. 2012 Mar 20;6:9. doi: 10.1186/1751-0759-6-9.
 Ondena K, Okamoto Y, Ura M. Does low self-esteem enhance social pain? The relationship between trait self-esteem and anterior cingulate cortex activation induced by ostracism. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 5(4) 2010: 385–391.
 Yadavaia JE, Hayes SC, Vilardaga R. Using Acceptance and Commitment Therapy to Increase Self-Compassion: A Randomized Controlled Trial. J Contextual Behav Sci. 2014 Oct 1;3(4):248-257.
 Kiviruusu O, Berg N, ... Haukkala A. Interpersonal Conflicts and Development of Self-Esteem from Adolescence to Mid-Adulthood. A 26-Year Follow-Up. PLoS One. 2016 Oct 18;11(10):e0164942. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164942. eCollection 2016.
 Waite P, McManus F, Shafran R. Cognitive behaviour therapy for low self-esteem: a preliminary randomized controlled trial in a primary care setting. J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry. 2012 Dec;43(4):1049-57. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2012.04.006. Epub 2012 May 14.
 Freeman D, Pugh K,... Fowler D. An early Phase II randomised controlled trial testing the effect on persecutory delusions of using CBT to reduce negative cognitions about the self: the potential benefits of enhancing self confidence. Schizophr Res. 2014 Dec;160(1-3):186-92. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2014.10.038. Epub 2014 Nov 11.
 Horrell L, Goldsmith KA, ... CLASSIC trial group. One-day cognitive-behavioural therapy self-confidence workshops for people with depression: randomised controlled trial. Br J Psychiatry. 2014 Mar;204(3):222-33. doi: 10.1192/bjp.bp.112.121855. Epub 2013 Dec 19.
 Mruk CJ. Self-Esteem and positive psychology: Research, theory and practice (4e). New York: Springer Publishing Co, 2013.
 Costa LM, Vieira SE. Quality of life of adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Clinics (Sao Paulo). 2015 Mar;70(3):173-9. doi: 10.6061/clinics/2015(03)04. Epub 2015 Mar 1.
 Brummelman E, Thomaes S, ... Bushman BJ. Unconditional regard buffers children's negative self-feelings. Pediatrics. 2014 Dec;134(6):1119-26. doi: 10.1542/peds.2013-3698. Epub 2014 Nov 3.
 Birkeland MS, Breivik K, Wold B. Peer acceptance protects global self-esteem from negative effects of low closeness to parents during adolescence and early adulthood. J Youth Adolesc. 2014 Jan;43(1):70-80. doi: 10.1007/s10964-013-9929-1. Epub 2013 Feb 24.
 Shaw BA, Liang J, Krause N. Age and race differences in the trajectories of self-esteem. Psychol Aging. 2010 Mar;25(1):84-94. doi: 10.1037/a0018242.
 von Soest T, Wagner J, Hansen T, Gerstorf D. Self-esteem across the second half of life: The role of socioeconomic status, physical health, social relationships, and personality factors. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2018 Jun;114(6):945-958. doi: 10.1037/pspp0000123. Epub 2017 Feb 2.
 Hong SM, Bianca MA, Bianca MR, Bollington J. Self-esteem: the effects of life-satisfaction, sex, and age. Psychol Rep. 1993 Feb;72(1):95-101.
 Pruessner JC, Lord C, Meaney M, Lupien S. Effects of self-esteem on age-related changes in cognition and the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2004 Dec;1032:186-90.
 Wagner J, Lang FR, Neyer FJ, Wagner GG. Self-esteem across adulthood: the role of resources. Eur J Ageing. 2013 Oct 24;11(2):109-119. doi: 10.1007/s10433-013-0299-z. eCollection 2014 Jun.
 Twenge JM, Konrath S, ... Bushman BJ. Further Evidence of an Increase in Narcissism Among College Students. Personality 76(4) 2008: 919-928.
 Erickson S, Heit E. Metacognition and confidence: comparing math to other academic subjects. Front Psychol. 2015 Jun 2;6:742. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00742. eCollection 2015.
 Fields EC, Kuperberg GR. Loving yourself more than your neighbor: ERPs reveal online effects of a self-positivity bias. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci. 2015 Sep;10(9):1202-9. doi: 10.1093/scan/nsv004. Epub 2015 Jan 19.
 Tappin BM, McKay RT. The Illusion of Moral Superiority. Soc Psychol Personal Sci. 2017 Aug;8(6):623-631. doi: 10.1177/1948550616673878. Epub 2016 Oct 19.
 Kim YH, Chiu CY, Bregant J. Unskilled and Don't Want to Be Aware of It: The Effect of Self-Relevance on the Unskilled and Unaware Phenomenon. PLoS One. 2015 Jun 12;10(6):e0130309. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0130309. eCollection 2015.
 Twenge JM, Campbell K. Age and Birth Cohort Differences in Self-Esteem: A Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Review 5(4) 2001.
 Greenwald AG, Farnham SD. Using the implicit association test to measure self-esteem and self-concept. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000 Dec;79(6):1022-38.
 Karpinski A. Measuring self-esteem using the implicit association test: the role of the other. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2004 Jan;30(1):22-34.
 Davis C, Kellett S, Beail N. Utility of the Rosenberg self-esteem scale. Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2009 May;114(3):172-8. doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-114.3.172.
 McKay MT, Boduszek D, Harvey SA. The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale: a bifactor answer to a two-factor question? J Pers Assess. 2014;96(6):654-60. doi: 10.1080/00223891.2014.923436. Epub 2014 Jun 18.
 Garofalo C, Holden CJ, Zeigler-Hill V, Velotti P. Understanding the connection between self-esteem and aggression: The mediating role of emotion dysregulation. Aggress Behav. 2016 Jan-Feb;42(1):3-15. doi: 10.1002/ab.21601. Epub 2015 Jul 23.
 Donnellan MB, Trzesniewski KH, ... Caspi A. Low self-esteem is related to aggression, antisocial behavior, and delinquency. Psychol Sci. 2005 Apr;16(4):328-35.
 Bushman BJ, Baumeister RF,... West SG. Looking again, and harder, for a link between low self-esteem and aggression. J Pers. 2009 Apr;77(2):427-46. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00553.x. Epub 2009 Feb 2.
 Taylor LD, Davis-Kean P, Malanchuk O. Self-esteem, academic self-concept, and aggression at school. Aggress Behav. 2007 Mar-Apr;33(2):130-6.
 Matsuura N, Hashimoto T, Toichi M. Correlations among self-esteem, aggression, adverse childhood experiences and depression in inmates of a female juvenile correctional facility in Japan. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci. 2009 Aug;63(4):478-85. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1819.2009.01996.x.
 Wang PW, Yang PC, ... Yen CF. Self-esteem in adolescent aggression perpetrators, victims and perpetrator-victims, and the moderating effects of depression and family support. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. 2013 Apr;29(4):221-8. doi: 10.1016/j.kjms.2012.08.035. Epub 2012 Nov 19.
 Bushman BJ, Baumeister RF. Threatened egotism, narcissism, self-esteem, and direct and displaced aggression: does self-love or self-hate lead to violence? J Pers Soc Psychol. 1998 Jul;75(1):219-29.
 Ang RP, Yusof N. The relationship between aggression, narcissism, and self-esteem in Asian children and adolescents. Current Psychology 24(2) 2005: 113-122.
 Esposito AJ, Kobak R, Little M. Aggression and self-esteem: a diary study of children's reactivity to negative interpersonal events. J Pers. 2005 Aug;73(4):887-906.
 Jordan CH, Spencer SJ, Zanna MP. Types of high self-esteem and prejudice: how implicit self-esteem relates to ethnic discrimination among high explicit self-esteem individuals. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2005 May;31(5):693-702.
 Crocker J, Thompson LL, McGraw KM, Ingerman C. Downward comparison, prejudice, and evaluations of others: effects of self-esteem and threat. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1987 May;52(5):907-16.
 Galinsky AD, Ku G. The effects of perspective-taking on prejudice: the moderating role of self-evaluation. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2004 May;30(5):594-604.
 Marissen MAE, Brouwer ME, ... Franken IHA. A masked negative self-esteem? Implicit and explicit self-esteem in patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Psychiatry Res. 2016 Aug 30;242:28-33. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.070. Epub 2016 May 18.
 Hunter JA. Self-esteem and in-group bias among members of a religious social category. J Soc Psychol. 2001 Jun;141(3):401-11.
 De Cremer D. Relations of self-esteem concerns, group identification, and self-stereotyping to in-group favoritism. J Soc Psychol. 2001 Jun;141(3):389-400.
 Gramzow RH, Gaertner L. Self-esteem and favoritism toward novel in-groups: the self as an evaluative base. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2005 May;88(5):801-15.
 Harter S. Causes and Consequences of Low Self-Esteem in Children and Adolescents. Self-Esteem 87-116
 Major B, Carrington PI, Carnevale PJD. Physical Attractiveness and Self-Esteem. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin 10(1) 1984.
 Bale C. Attractiveness and self-esteem: A test of sociometer theory (PhD Dissertatoin), 2010.
 Mares SH, de Leeuw RN, Scholte RH, Engels RC. Facial attractiveness and self-esteem in adolescence. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol. 2010;39(5):627-37. doi: 10.1080/15374416.2010.501292.
 Hyseni Duraku Z, Hoxha L. Self-esteem, study skills, self-concept, social support, psychological distress, and coping mechanism effects on test anxiety and academic performance. Health Psychol Open. 2018 Sep 12;5(2):2055102918799963. doi: 10.1177/2055102918799963. eCollection 2018 Jul-Dec.
 Opie N, Lemasters G. Do boys with a low-average I.Q. actually have a low self-esteem? J Sch Health. 1975 Sep;45(7):381-5.
 Bénony H, Van Der Elst D, ... Marnier JP. Link between depression and academic self-esteem in gifted children. Encephale. 2007 Jan-Feb;33(1):11-20.
 Gabriel MT, Critelli JW, Ee JS. Narcissistic Illusions in Self‐Evaluations of Intelligence and Attractiveness. Personality 62(1) 1994: 143-155.
 Bowles T. Focusing on time orientation to explain adolescent self concept and academic achievement: Part 2: Testing a model. Journal of Applied Health Behaviour, 1(2), 1999, 1-8.
 Pottebaum SM, Keith TZ, Ehly SW. Is There a Causal Relation between Self-Concept and Academic Achievement? J Educational Research 79(3) 1986.
 Yadav A, Yadav TP. A study of school adjustment, self-concept, self-esteem, general wellbeing and parent child relationship in Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis. Indian J Pediatr. 2013 Mar;80(3):199-206. doi: 10.1007/s12098-012-0804-y. Epub 2012 Jul 6.
 Hulme N1, Hirsch C, Stopa L. Images of the self and self-esteem: do positive self-images improve self-esteem in social anxiety? Cogn Behav Ther. 2012;41(2):163-73. doi: 10.1080/16506073.2012.664557. Epub 2012 Mar 22.
 Josephs RA, Bosson JK, Jacobs CG. Self-esteem maintenance processes: why low self-esteem may be resistant to change. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003 Jul;29(7):920-33.
 Robinson K. The relationships between social skills, social support, self-esteem and burden in adult caregivers. J Adv Nurs. 1990 Jul;15(7):788-95.
 Lewandowski GW, Nardone N, Raines AJ. The Role of Self-concept Clarity in Relationship Quality. Self and Identity 9(4) 2010.
 Tarrant M, MacKenzie L, Hewitt LA. Friendship group identification, multidimensional self-concept, and experience of developmental tasks in adolescence. J Adolesc. 2006 Aug;29(4):627-40. Epub 2005 Sep 26.
 Parker JG, Low CM, Walker AR, Gamm BK. Friendship jealousy in young adolescents: individual differences and links to sex, self-esteem, aggression, and social adjustment. Dev Psychol. 2005 Jan;41(1):235-250. doi: 10.1037/0012-16188.8.131.52.
 Schwartz-Mette RA, Rose AJ. Conversational Self-Focus in Adolescent Friendships: Observational Assessment of an Interpersonal Process and Relations with Internalizing Symptoms and Friendship Quality. J Soc Clin Psychol. 2009 Dec 1;28(10):1263-1297.
 Metzler A, Scheithauer H. The Long-Term Benefits of Positive Self-Presentation via Profile Pictures, Number of Friends and the Initiation of Relationships on Facebook for Adolescents' Self-Esteem and the Initiation of Offline Relationships. Front Psychol. 2017 Nov 15;8:1981. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01981. eCollection 2017.
 Cambron MJ, Acitelli LK, Steinberg L. When friends make you blue: the role of friendship contingent self-esteem in predicting self-esteem and depressive symptoms. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2010 Mar;36(3):384-97. doi: 10.1177/0146167209351593. Epub 2009 Dec 23.
 Heatherton TF, Vohs KD. Interpersonal evaluations following threats to self: role of self-esteem. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2000 Apr;78(4):725-36.
 Vohs KD, Heatherton TF. Self-Esteem and threats to self: implications for self-construals and interpersonal perceptions. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2001 Dec;81(6):1103-18.
 Murray SL, Rose P, ... Kusche AG. When rejection stings: how self-esteem constrains relationship-enhancement processes. J Pers Soc Psychol. 2002 Sep;83(3):556-73.
 Baumeister R. Exploding the Self-Esteem Myth. Scientific American Mind 2005, 16, 50 - 57.
 Kühberger A, Fritz A, Scherndl T. Publication bias in psychology: a diagnosis based on the correlation between effect size and sample size. PLoS One. 2014 Sep 5;9(9):e105825. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105825. eCollection 2014.
 Ferguson CJ, Brannick MT. Publication bias in psychological science: prevalence, methods for identifying and controlling, and implications for the use of meta-analyses. Psychol Methods. 2012 Mar;17(1):120-8. doi: 10.1037/a0024445. Epub 2011 Jul 25.
 Holman L, Head ML, Lanfear R, Jennions MD. Evidence of Experimental Bias in the Life Sciences: Why We Need Blind Data Recording. PLoS Biol. 2015 Jul 8;13(7):e1002190. doi: 10.1371/journal.pbio.1002190. eCollection 2015 Jul.
 Enejoh V, Pharr J, ... Ezeanolue EE. Impact of self esteem on risky sexual behaviors among Nigerian adolescents. AIDS Care. 2016;28(5):672-6. doi: 10.1080/09540121.2015.1120853. Epub 2015 Dec 16.
 Herold ES, Goodwin MS. Self-esteem and sexual permissiveness. J Clin Psychol. 1979 Oct;35(4):908-12.
 Robinson RB, Frank DI. The relation between self-esteem, sexual activity, and pregnancy. Adolescence. 1994 Spring;29(113):27-35.
 Raskin R, Novacek J, Hogan R. Narcissism, self-esteem, and defensive self-enhancement. J Pers. 1991 Mar;59(1):19-38.
 Eaton J, Ward Struthers C, Santelli AG. When apologies fail: The moderating effect of implicit and explicit self-esteem on apology and forgiveness. Self And Identity 6(2;3), 2007.
 Kernis MH, Lakey CE, Heppner WL. Secure versus fragile high self-esteem as a predictor of verbal defensiveness: converging findings across three different markers. J Pers. 2008 Jun;76(3):477-512. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00493.x.
 Kernis MH, Brown AC, Brody GH. Fragile self-esteem in children and its associations with perceived patterns of parent-child communication. J Pers. 2000 Apr;68(2):225-52.
 Kernis MH. Measuring self-esteem in context: the importance of stability of self-esteem in psychological functioning.J Pers. 2005 Dec;73(6):1569-605.
 Noser A, Ziegler-Hill V. Self-Esteem Instability and the Desire for Fame. Self And Identity 13(4) 2014.
 Oosterwegel A, Field N, Hart D, Anderson K. The relation of self-esteem variability to emotion variability, mood, personality traits, and depressive tendencies. J Pers. 2001 Oct;69(5):689-708.
 Sandstorm MJ, Jordan R. Defensive self-esteem and aggression in childhood. Journal of Research in Personality 42(2) 2008: 506-514.
 T Buckingham J, Lam TA, Andrade FC, Boring BL, Emery D. Reducing contingent self-worth: A defensive response to self-threats. J Soc Psychol. 2018 Apr 10:1-15. doi: 10.1080/00224545.2018.1461604.
 Baccus JR, Baldwin MW, Packer DJ. Increasing implicit self-esteem through classical conditioning. Psychol Sci. 2004 Jul;15(7):498-502.
 Espinosa R, Valiente C, Varese F, Bentall RP. Can We Ameliorate Psychotic Symptoms by Improving Implicit Self-Esteem? A Proof-of-Concept Experience Sampling Study of an Evaluative Classical Conditioning Intervention. J Nerv Ment Dis. 2018 Sep;206(9):699-704. doi: 10.1097/NMD.0000000000000858.
 Swann WB Jr, De la Ronde C, Hixon JG. Authenticity and positivity strivings in marriage and courtship. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1994 May;66(5):857-69.
 Coleman MD. Emotion and the Self-Serving Bias. Current psychology (New Brunswick, N.J.) 30(4) 2011.
 Brito CC, Oliveira MT. Bullying and self-esteem in adolescents from public schools. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013 Nov-Dec;89(6):601-7. doi: 10.1016/j.jped.2013.04.001. Epub 2013 Sep 9.
 Patchin JW, Hinduja S. Cyberbullying and self-esteem. J Sch Health. 2010 Dec;80(12):614-21; quiz 622-4. doi: 10.1111/j.1746-1561.2010.00548.x.
 Pollastri AR, Cardemil EV, O'Donnell EH. Self-esteem in pure bullies and bully/victims: a longitudinal analysis. J Interpers Violence. 2010 Aug;25(8):1489-502. doi: 10.1177/0886260509354579. Epub 2009 Dec 29.
 Wei HS, Lee W. Individual and social network predictors of physical bullying: a longitudinal study of Taiwanese early adolescents. Violence Vict. 2014;29(4):701-16.
 Wolke D, Lereya ST. Long-term effects of bullying. Arch Dis Child. 2015 Sep;100(9):879-85. doi: 10.1136/archdischild-2014-306667. Epub 2015 Feb 10.
 Krahé B, Berger A. Longitudinal pathways of sexual victimization, sexual self-esteem, and depression in women and men. Psychol Trauma. 2017 Mar;9(2):147-155. doi: 10.1037/tra0000198. Epub 2016 Sep 26.
 Kucharska J. Sexual and Non-Sexual Trauma, Depression and Self-Esteem in a Sample of Polish Women. A Cross-Sectional Study. Clin Psychol Psychother. 2017 Jan;24(1):186-194. doi: 10.1002/cpp.1994. Epub 2016 Jan 5.
 Paradiso S, Rudrauf D. Struggle for life, struggle for love and recognition: the neglected self in social cognitive neuroscience. Dialogues Clin Neurosci. 2012 Mar;14(1):65-75.
 Oshri A, Carlson MW, ... Wickrama KK. Developmental Growth Trajectories of Self-Esteem in Adolescence: Associations with Child Neglect and Drug Use and Abuse in Young Adulthood. J Youth Adolesc. 2017 Jan;46(1):151-164. doi: 10.1007/s10964-016-0483-5. Epub 2016 Apr 25.
 Ewing BA, Osilla KC, ... D'Amico EJ. Longitudinal family effects on substance use among an at-risk adolescent sample. Addict Behav. 2015 Feb;41:185-91. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2014.10.017. Epub 2014 Oct 24.
 Pantic I. Online social networking and mental health. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw. 2014 Oct;17(10):652-7. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0070. Epub 2014 Sep 5.
 Leung CY, Leung GM, Schooling CM. Behavioral problem trajectories and self-esteem changes in relation with adolescent depressive symptoms: a longitudinal study. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol. 2018 Jul;53(7):673-684. doi: 10.1007/s00127-018-1508-z. Epub 2018 Apr 4.
 Phinney JS, Chavira V. Ethnic identity and self-esteem: an exploratory longitudinal study. J Adolesc. 1992 Sep;15(3):271-81.
 Valkenburg PM, Peter J, Schouten AP. Friend networking sites and their relationship to adolescents' well-being and social self-esteem. Cyberpsychol Behav. 2006 Oct;9(5):584-90.
 Kidd S, Shahar G. Resilience in homeless youth: the key role of self-esteem. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2008 Apr;78(2):163-72. doi: 10.1037/0002-94184.108.40.206.
 Veselska Z, Geckova AM, ... Reijneveld SA. Self-esteem and resilience: the connection with risky behavior among adolescents. Addict Behav. 2009 Mar;34(3):287-91. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2008.11.005. Epub 2008 Nov 21.
 Wang Y, Zhang L, ... Liu J. Pathway to neural resilience: Self-esteem buffers against deleterious effects of poverty on the hippocampus. Hum Brain Mapp. 2016 Nov;37(11):3757-3766. doi: 10.1002/hbm.23273.
 Steele CM, Spencer SJ, Lynch M. Self-image resilience and dissonance: the role of affirmational resources. J Pers Soc Psychol. 1993 Jun;64(6):885-96.
 Jaquish GA, Savin-Williams RC. Biological and ecological factors in the expression of adolescent self-esteem. J Youth Adolesc. 1981 Dec;10(6):473-85. doi: 10.1007/BF02087940.
 Raevuori A, Dick DM, ... Silventoinen K. Genetic and environmental factors affecting self-esteem from age 14 to 17: a longitudinal study of Finnish twins. Psychol Med. 2007 Nov;37(11):1625-33. Epub 2007 May 31.
 Johnson W, Zava D, McCoy N. Overall self-confidence, self-confidence in mathematics, and sex-role stereotyping in relation to salivary free testosterone in university women. Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Oct;91(2):391-401.
 O’Connor DB, Archer J, Hair WH, Wu FCW. Exogenous testosterone, aggression, and mood in eugonadal and hypogonadal men. Phys Behav 2001, 75:557–566
 Wang C, Swerdloff RS, ... Berman N. Transdermal testosterone gel improves sexual function, mood, muscle strength, and body composition parameters in hypogonadal men. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2000, 85:2839–2853
 O’Connor DB, Archer J, ... Wu FCW. Effects of Testosterone on Mood, Aggression, and Sexual Behavior in Young Men: A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Cross-Over Study. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, 89(6) 2004.
 Lemola S, Räikkönen K, Gomez V, Allemand M. Optimism and self-esteem are related to sleep. Results from a large community-based sample. Int J Behav Med. 2013 Dec;20(4):567-71. doi: 10.1007/s12529-012-9272-z.
 Woods HC, Scott H. #Sleepyteens: Social media use in adolescence is associated with poor sleep quality, anxiety, depression and low self-esteem. J Adolesc. 2016 Aug;51:41-9. doi: 10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.05.008. Epub 2016 Jun 10.
 Deci E, Ryan RM. Ch 2: Human autonomy: The basis for true self-esteem. In: Efficacy, Agency, And Self-Esteem. Kernis MH ed.; Plenum Press 1995.
 Wang Y, Li Z. Authenticity as a Mediator of the Relationship Between Power Contingent Self-Esteem and Subjective Well-Being. Front Psychol. 2018 Jun 27;9:1066. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01066. eCollection 2018.
 Ryff CD. Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 57(6), 1989, 1069-1081.
 Pillemer DB, Ivcevic Z, Gooze RA, Collins KA. Self-esteem memories: feeling good about achievement success, feeling bad about relationship distress. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2007 Sep;33(9):1292-305. Epub 2007 Jul 17.
 Ivcevic Z, Pillemer DB, ... Taksic V. When we feel good and bad about ourselves: self-esteem memories across cultures. Memory. 2008 Oct;16(7):703-11. doi: 10.1080/09658210802251406.
 Christensen TC, Wood JV, Barrett LF. Remembering everyday experience through the prism of self-esteem. Pers Soc Psychol Bull. 2003 Jan;29(1):51-62.
 Cai H, Wu M, Luo YL, Yang J. Implicit self-esteem decreases in adolescence: a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2014 Feb 25;9(2):e89988. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089988. eCollection 2014.
 Gregg AP, Sedikes C. Narcissistic Fragility: Rethinking Its Links to Explicit and Implicit Self-esteem. Self & Identity 9(2) 2010.
 Schafer RB1, Keith PM. Change in adult self-esteem: a longitudinal assessment. Br J Soc Psychol. 1999 Sep;38 ( Pt 3):303-14.
 Elavsky S. Longitudinal examination of the exercise and self-esteem model in middle-aged women. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2010 Dec;32(6):862-80.
 McAuley E, Elavsky S, ... Marquez DX. Physical activity, self-efficacy, and self-esteem: longitudinal relationships in older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2005 Sep;60(5):P268-75.
 Schmalz DL, Deane GD, Birch LL, Davison KK. A longitudinal assessment of the links between physical activity and self-esteem in early adolescent non-Hispanic females. J Adolesc Health. 2007 Dec;41(6):559-65. Epub 2007 Sep 29.
 Palmier-Claus J, Dunn G, Drake R, Lewis S. The negative and positive self: a longitudinal study examining self-esteem, paranoia and negative symptoms in individuals with first-episode psychosis.Early Interv Psychiatry. 2011 May;5(2):150-5. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-7893.2010.00250.x.
 Block J, Robins RW. A longitudinal study of consistency and change in self-esteem from early adolescence to early adulthood. Child Dev. 1993 Jun;64(3):909-23.
 Heinonen K, Räikkönen K, Keltikangas-Järvinen L. Maternal perceptions and adolescent self-esteem: a six-year longitudinal study. Adolescence. 2003 Winter;38(152):669-87.
Join Over 30,000+ Subscribers!