Here we are...
The second installment of my 4-part series on particulate matter. in this blog post, I'll specifically look at the health effects of particulate matter.
This blog post explores 10 different devastating health effects of particulate matter and explains the physiological mechanism of action.
My previous blog post - the first installment of this series - looked at what particulate matter is.
But let me quickly recap the argument:
Particulate matter is tiny particles that you breathe in through your lungs. Different types of particulte matter exists, such as "PM2.5", "PM10", and "PM0.1".
These numbers denote the size of these particles. The numbers display the size of these particles in "micrometers" or "microns". A micron is a millionth of a millimeter, so particulate matter are extremely small.
Particulate matter also kills 800,000 people every single year and shortens the lives of more than 6 million people.
The problem is that particulate matter is everywhere: industry, transit (cars), and even some environments such as deserts emit particulate matter. Also, indoor levels of particulate matter are usually higher than outdoor levels, contrary to what many people believe.
Again, if you want a much more detailed account of what particulate matter is, read my blog post about the topic.
Let's now take a deeper dive into the topic of the 10 most important particulate matter health effects. First, a mechanistic and physiological explanation on how exactly particulate matter causes damage:
Getting exposed to all the particulate matter in the world would not really matter if these substances never ended up in your body. That toxic stuff does end up in your body, however, and causes health problems.
The question is, of course: "how does particulate matter get there?"
The answer to that question is, unfortunately, not fully known yet. The upside (or perhaps downside) is that many different mechanisms have been found.
What is known, from rat studies, for example, is that part of the PM2.5 you inhale sticks to the "epithelium" of your lungs. Epithelium cells make up the inner linings of your lungs where air is exchanged.
In rat studies, the bacterial colonies in the airways also altered by particulate matter as well. When the wrong bacteria are located in air airways or lungs, you'll have higher risks for getting infections--millions of people die yearly due to airway infections...
Human autopsies also demonstrate that if you're exposed to lots of particulate matter these substances can be found in your lungs after death.
It can thus be definitively concluded that particulate matter does end up in your airways and lungs - the only question is precisely how...
In fact, about 1% of the particular matter you inhale even ends up in your blood.
PM2.5, because it is smaller than PM10, can penetrate up until the lung sacs - called "alveoli" - the location where blood exchanges oxygen in the lungs.
Your lungs transfer oxygen from outside your body to your blood and remove excess carbon dioxide (CO2). Problems emerge when you're breathing in fine particles, as some of these particles are thus exchanged with your blood together with oxygen and CO2.
Fortunately, you've got what is called a "lymphatic system". That lymphatic system filters your blood, removing some particulate matter found therein. The lymphatic system is an important part of your immune system.
The downside is that the lymphatic system cannot filter all particulate matter.
Transferred by your blood, some of the particulate matter ends up in other organs (because your lungs are already hit by this point) - examples are your heart, kidneys, and brain.
Even fetuses - in other words: unborn babies - are affected by particulate matter accumulation.[171-175] To be precise: mothers' every 10 micro-grams increase in particulate matter per m3 of air leads to a 5-gram loss in birth weight.
Prospective mothers: beware...
If (or rather: when) particulate matter has reached your lungs, blood, and other organs, it can wreak havoc:
As you can see, there are several mechanisms by which particulate matter affects your body. Many mechanisms, such as how particulate matter influences organ function, still need to be investigated in more depth.
And there's more evidence:
The absorption of particulate matter from the environment through the lungs can occur very directly.
If you're living near a cement plant that emits lots of chromium into the air, that chromium can be detected in your blood, for example.
If the particulate matter you inhale contains more lead you'll simply end up with more toxic lead in your blood.
Particulate matter can increase lead levels in that air through certain cooking methods or by traffic emissions. Even the water quality in your area can also be negatively affected.[332; 335; 336]
Metalworkers: beware--don't just protect your eyes, but also your airways...
On another note:
Remember that I mentioned that particulate matter larger than PM10 was not regulated because governments would have to mainly regulate sand that's transmitted through the air?
There's another reason why particulate matter larger than PM10 is less harmful: these substances are much more easily filtered in the nose and upper airways. Large particulate matter is thus not your main health concern, as the body can more adequately deal with them.
Ultrafine particulate matter - PM0.1 - is yet another story.[162; 255]
These very tiny particles can directly end up in your brain when you breathe them.
These particles may travel through or alongside the nerve that runs from your nose to your brain - called the "olfactory nerve".
Unfortunately, the science regarding ultrafine particulate matter (PM0.1) is relatively new--but even PM2.5 levels have not been controlled for very long...
Let me explain...
The EPA did not even measure PM2.5 levels before 1997. PM0.1 - which are even smaller of course - has only been the new "star" on the block in recent years.
The health effects of particulate matter are thus actively being researched today and in the coming decades.
It can reasonably be expected that many new mechanisms by which particulate matter affects your body are discovered in time.
That's bad news, as you'll have to act on incomplete data today...
In the next section, I'll explore the currently scientifically-proven health effects of exposing yourself to this toxin - even today's incomplete data is frightening...
Let's dig deep into a complete list of all the effects that particulate matter can have on your overall health.
Fasten your seat belts - this is going to be a somewhat depressing list.
Keep in mind that, after you've read the entire list I will tell you exactly how to actually avoid all these particulate matter health disasters...
Particulate matter increases what is called "all-cause mortality" - your "general risk of dying".[31-44; 46; 47; 140]
All-cause mortality is the broadest risk of dying that's measured in medicine.
All-cause mortality is a very useful measurement because you're not just taking the direct effects of any health variable you're investigating into account, but also its indirect effects.
Let's say I'm researching whether drinking alcohol increases my all-cause mortality risk. In that case, a direct all-cause mortality effect of drinking alcohol that I'd expect is an increase in liver problems and therefore a higher death rate.
An indirect effect, however, would be a higher risk of dying of accidents - because you're more fearless on alcohol while also losing coordination.
Translated to the case of particular matter, an increase in all-cause mortality cannot merely be explained by an increased risk of heart attacks, but also due to your general fitness level that's decreasing, which makes you less able to jump away from a car that's heading your way (too) quickly.
Let's consider another indirect effect of how particulate matter exposure influences your all-cause mortality:
If you've got other diseases, such as tuberculosis, for instance, particulate matter inhibits your recovery and causes you to recover less well from that disease.
No matter what your condition, it's safe to assume that an increase in particulate matter exposure makes recovery much harder...
But let's go back to particulate matter's primary effects on all-cause mortality: even a couple of days of increased exposure to either PM2.5 or PM10 emissions when spending time in a particular area already heighten your risk of death.
There's a difference between several types of particulate matter on all-cause mortality though:
Some compounds such as "elemental carbon" or "organic carbon" are proven to have big effects, while evidence for the effect of metals in particulate matter is thinner. Lead or cadmium are examples of toxic metals.
(Please keep in mind that I don't want to go in too much depth regarding different chemicals because this topic is already complex.)
Nevertheless, the research on the effect of particulate matter on all-cause mortality is extremely solid: there's a small effect that increases the more particulate matter exposure you get - it's extremely rare to find contradictory outcomes here.
Interestingly enough, particulate matter doesn't just increase your risk for "classical" air pollution diseases such as lung or heart diseases--even your propensity for self-harm (and thus psychological issues), nervous system illnesses, and movement disorders increase.
I'll get back to the issue of nervous system disorders later on...
Let's first consider an effect that should now be almost self-evident :
Particulate matter leads to (chronic) lung disease.[32; 37; 118-125; 127-137; 139-143; 146-151]
Just as you can expect smoking to have a large effect on your lungs, the same is true for breathing particulate matter.
For that reason, particulate matter's effects on your lungs specifically and respiratory system, in general, has been extensively studied. These health effects have been investigated in many countries, such as China, countries in Latin America, and the West, and the effect on your airways (and general health) is firmly established...
The results can even be quantified:
For every 10 micrograms PM2.5 increase per m3 in your environment, the number and intensity of respiratory problems you'll have increases linearly.
If you already have lung or respiratory problems, particulate matter can further exacerbate these conditions. If you're coughing, wheezing, or having frequent respiratory tract infections, you'll have to be especially careful with particulate matter exposure.
Simply put, particulate matter is more lethal if you've already got lung diseases.
Lung conditions such as "COPD" are also directly caused by particulate matter exposure.
With COPD, you'll have trouble breathing and using the air they breathe correctly.
Children's lungs are harmed more quickly by particulate matter's effects - children, for example, are more prone to be admitted to hospitals and have asthma with greater particulate matter exposure levels.
Children exposed to lots of particulate matter will also develop their lung function more slowly. Even in middle school, children's health development is still negatively affected by particulate matter.
If you're older, particulate matter additionally makes your lung function decline faster than age peers with less exposure.
Although there's some conflict of evidence, particulate matter may even decreases lung function if you're healthy.
How about another common lung disease, "asthma"?
(Asthma entails you've got a (chronic) inflammation of the airways.)
Even with more short-term exposure to PM2.5 you're more prone to visit the emergency room as an asthma patient.
Children with asthma are more susceptible than adults (yet again). More exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 can even help predict the chances of children having asthma once they turn 18.
There's also a relationship between low birth weight, asthma, and PM2.5 exposure.
Even a mother's exposure to particulate matter while being pregnant is associated with increased probabilities of their eventual children getting asthma. Wheezing frequency is also increased with more prenatal particulate matter exposure.
Crazy but true...
And when you've got asthma, particulate matter will trigger that condition to be worse.
Thus: steer clear from air pollution if you've got asthma or want to avoid it...
And don't be fooled into thinking that the danger with particulate matter lies exclusively outside your house.
Indoor particulate matter energy sources, such as firewood, kerosene, or liquid petroleum gas, are particularly dangerous. Many countries in the developing world still generate lots of indoor particulate matter through those methods.
That indoor particulate matter is often "trapped" indoors - causing a continual re-circulation of these damaging substances.
More bad news coming...
I'm just getting started with particulate mater's effects on your lungs:
Particulate matter increases your risk of getting lung cancer.[122; 126; 141; 142; 152; 155; 156; 167; 204]
The World Health Organization has classified particulate matter as a "class 1 carcinogen" - entailing that the substance is known to cause cancer in humans. The International Agency for Research on Cancer puts the substance in the same category.
The effects of smoking and particulate matter exposure accumulate: if you've ever smoked in the past, the effects of particulate matter is added on top of your greater lung cancer risk due to smoking.
Surprisingly, current smokers experience less of an impact from particulate matter compared to non-smokers. The reason for that outcome is probably that smokers have built more tolerance towards ingesting toxins through their airways.
Of course, remember that smokers still have an increased lung cancer risk compared to non-smokers, because they are exposed to two carcinogens instead of one (cigarettes or cigars and particulate matter).
(So there's no reason to start smoking.)
I hope you're beginning to see a pattern here: inhaling particulate matter is a kind of second-hand smoking.
About 80% of studies also claim that particulate matter increases lung cancer risk.
What if you've already got lung cancer?
Consider these numbers;
The relative risk of dying from lung cancer increases with 9% per every 10 micrograms per m3 of PM2.5, and 5% for every 10 micrograms per m3 of the PM10 concentration of the air your breathe.
Particulate matter directly makes you more stressed.[67; 68; 157-159; 200]
Several stress hormones are actually immediately increased when more particulate matter is present in the air you're breathing.
A difference in exposure of 24 micrograms per m3 instead of 53 micrograms of particulate matter per m3 - due to air purification being tested in a study - led to lower levels of the "cortisol", "adrenaline", "cortisone", and "noradrenaline" - which are all stress hormones.
Keep in mind that many cities in the developed world reach that 53 micrograms per m3 concentration, and that people in these environments thus tend to have chronically elevated stress hormone levels.
Particulate matter additionally increases your blood pressure, an effect further builds up if you're already under higher stress levels. Guess what? Many people actually are under high-stress levels in modern society...
High particulate matter levels heighten your blood pressure almost instantly by a couple of points. In other words, if you're exposed your blood pressure increases immediately afterward.
There's more gloom and doom though:
Quality of life and overall mood can also be decreased by particulate matter exposure - especially in men. During pregnancy particulate matter also increases how often you (if you're a woman) get a depression.
The higher stress and poorer quality of life effects of particulate matter hit younger people harder than the elderly.
I know these results sound bad but stay with me: solutions are covered in a later section...
Let's first consider another particulate matter health effect--you already know that particulate matter ends up in your bloodstream through the lungs--so:
Particulate matter directly causes heart disease.[37; 53-66; 76; 93-95; 111; 118; 120; 161; 309]
Not only blood pressure but also heart rate increases with greater PM2.5 exposure.
At the maximum, the difference between very low and very high levels of particulate matter exposure can make the difference of a total of 12 points in blood pressure and 8 beats per minute qua heat rate.
(I'm considering systolic blood pressure here, which is blood pressure measured during a heartbeat.)
Heart rate variability, which is a marker of your body's general stress levels, is also negatively affected by more PM2.5 exposure.
If you're thinking: "so how does heart rate variability track stress?", then I'll tell you:
The more variability between different heartbeats, the lower your overall stress levels. If the interval between heartbeats is really continuous, it's a sign of having greater stress levels - which precisely occurs with greater particulate matter exposure.
Phrased differently, your heart rhythm can thus be affected by particulate matter. While evidence for particulate matter's effect on heart rate variability exists, the relationship is currently weak.
Nevertheless, disruptions in heart rhythm, which is often a sign of heart disease, will occur due to particulate matter exposure.
The overall effect on heart health is crystal-clear:
For every microgram of particulate per m3 that's added to your environment, your risk of heart disease increases - again, a straightforward linear relationship is found.
Particular matter's effects on heart disease can have far-reaching consequences: exposure can eventually lead to a stroke, heart attacks, or degeneration of your blood vessels.
(In a heart attack your heart has insufficient oxygen, and as a consequence (a part of) your heart dies off. A stroke is similar, but happens in your brain, due to poor blood flow or low oxygen levels.)
Getting exposed to more particulate matter directly causes people to have more heart attacks.
Every 5 micrograms of particulate matter per m3 that you're exposed to on a daily basis also increase your risk for having a stroke. There's thus a dose-dependent response to particulate matter in stroke risk (yet again).
Let's explore seven different mechanisms that explain the relationship between particulate matter and heart disease:
The first mechanism is that blood vessels deteriorate. As a result of that deterioration, your heart or brain are more prone to end up in a situation where they no longer get sufficient oxygen.
A second mechanism is that particulate matter lowers the ability of stem cells to function well. Stem cells are primordial cells that can differentiate into many different specialized cells, such as those found in your blood vessels.
The regeneration of your blood vessels (and also organs) can thus be undermined if stem cells cannot do their job.
A third mechanism by which particulate matter increases your risk for heart disease is by inducing what is called "oxidative damage".
Oxidative damage occurs because of harmful reactions with oxygen. To counter that damaging process, you commonly consume anti-oxidant rich foods such as vegetables - antioxidants inhibit these damaging reactions.
It's reasonable to assume that particulate matter creates oxidative damage wherever it ends up in your body...
Particulate matter leads to higher risks for heart disease, fourthly, by increasing inflammation levels. Inflammation underlies many modern diseases.
Fifthly, particulate matter affects heart and blood vessel health is by influencing blood clotting. Particulate matter can additionally cause thrombosis - an excessive clotting of blood in your blood vessels.
Sixthly, bio-markers in your blood that are associated with heart disease, such as triglycerides, are also negatively affected.
And lastly: remember it has been demonstrated that particulate matter literally ends up in your circulation, lowering blood quality.
Particulate matter can thus have a huge effect on your heart and blood vessel health, and cut your life short by several years. Unfortunately, the effects of particulate matter on causing heart disease are really solid..
Taking a broader perspective: heart attacks (40%) and strokes (40%) are by far the most important reasons of dying because of air pollution.
Steer clear of particulate matter if heart health is your goal. Next, yet another bummer:
Particulate matter increases your diabetes risk.[52; 68; 168]
Longer-term exposure to PM2.5 will literally cause some people to have diabetes--people who would have otherwise not gotten that disease.
Particulate matter also induces what is called "insulin resistance", which is associated with diabetes. With insulin resistance, your cells cannot properly take up and use carbohydrates (glucose) anymore.
Rat studies have demonstrated that high particulate matter exposures lead to insulin resistance throughout the entire body. Poor diets might thus not the only reason people end up with diabetes in modern society...
Then, another expected consequence:
Particulate matter decreases brain and nervous system health.[49; 81; 96-104; 106-117]
Cognitive function, for example, specifically decreases under the influence of particulate matter. Having more general stress exacerbates that problem. You'll thus make more mistakes on cognitive tasks with higher particulate matter exposure levels.
More particulate matter exposure also quickens your cognitive decline in old age.
In babies and children, particulate matter exposure increases what is called "inflammation" in their brains. Again, inflammation is associated with many modern diseases.
Even before birth - as you've frequently read right now - particulate matter may have an effect upon the child's eventual health. More particulate matter exposure leads to less development of the "neocortex", a brain region that is highly developed in human beings, and specific to your human capabilities.
Regardless of age, if you're living near a major road, you're more prone to have a smaller brain volume, more brain infarcts, and more pathological changes to your brain.
That's bad news...
More particulate matter exposure you may even end up with fewer brain cells - although that effect is still contested. And while that effect is not enormously strong, it's measurable sometimes.
What's fascinating is that the effects of particulate matter on the nervous system have not been studied in great detail yet.
Remember that while it's demonstrated that particulate matter ends up in your circulation--how particulate matter ends up in the nervous system or brain is not fully understood yet.
Nevertheless, brain diseases do increase under the effects of particulate matter - examples are Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, dementia, but also regular headaches.
That's not sure again...
Rat studies, however, do show that inhaling particulate matter increases the "beta-amyloid" buildup, which is one of the plaques causing Alzheimer's disease - a common brain degenerative disorder.
Overall blood vessel health in the brain is also reduced through particulate matter exposure in rat studies.
In the same poor rats, maternal exposure to particulate matter during pregnancy also affects the nervous system and immune system development in their offspring.
That's not all:
Another reason to suspect that particulate matter contributes to brain diseases is that air pollution, in general, has already been demonstrated to cause brain diseases.
While there's still some conflict of evidence regarding this topic, but I assume it's very probable that many negative effects of particulate matter on human brains will eventually be demonstrated.
I'm happy almost done with this list:
Unsurprisingly, particulate matter may also increase your body's "oxidative stress" and inflammation levels.[70-80; 82; 160; 309]
Remember I've talked about oxidative stress before - in relation to your blood vessels. The effect of particulate matter on inflammation in your body is broader, unfortunately.
Skin cells, brain cells, lung cells, and nerve cells, for example, can all be affected by particulate matter.
Particulate matter also increases inflammation levels in general - as these substances can end up in many locations in your body, they can have far-reaching effects on how tissues function.
Inflammation is associated with many modern diseases, such as autoimmune disease, heart disease, and cancer.
There's one caveat:
Many of these effects on oxidative stress and inflammation are proven based on cell cultures in laboratory studies--and have not yet been verified in humans.
Oxidative stress and inflammation are not always bad either. Why? Some theories do claim that the oxidative stress and inflammation are protective to avoid further damage.
Nevertheless, chronic long-term exposure of particulate matter can cause cells in your body to die. Cell death may be one of the mechanisms that explain how particulate matter causes damage to the airways and lungs.
One last (negative) effect of particulate matter exposure:
Your mitochondria - the "energy-producing factories of your cells" - are negatively affected by particulate matter.[83-92]
Even before birth, higher exposure levels of mothers to PM2.5 will cause more problems in the specific DNA of your mitochondria.
Many people don't know that their mitochondria have their own DNA - that you solely inherit through your mother - which is different than your regular genome.
During the last decade, it has become apparent that the DNA of your mitochondria is much more predictive of whether you'll develop certain modern diseases than your regular genes.
Disease increases because of errors in copying the DNA of your mitochondria over time. You'll essentially end up with more and more diverging mitochondrial DNA over your lifetime, through which your mitochondria no longer function well anymore.
Thus, if the mitochondrial DNA of a fetus is slightly damaged through particulate matter exposure of the mother, that's serious business. Lifetime trauma of the mother increases that damaging effect--and the effect is also stronger for boys.
The parts of the mitochondrial genome that is activated in fetuses is also altered by maternal particulate matter exposure. Through that mechanism, particulate matter can change how your mitochondria handle energy and information - potentially leading to health problems and lower energy levels down the road.
After birth and as an adult, particulate matter still affects your mitochondria negatively:
If you work multiple days in a row in an industry where lots of toxic metals are emitted, certain biomarkers related to the incorrect copying of your mitochondria's DNA increase.
Rat studies also demonstrate that particulate matter can damage the functioning of the mitochondria in your heart. In humans, that same effect appears when people smoke cigarettes - which are substances emitting particulate matter.
Mitochondria in immune cells - such as those found in your lymph system - are also disrupted.
So that's it...
The final list of most of particulate matter's health effects...
Sure, there are many other topics that I could have covered, such as skin disease,[144; 185] changes in your DNA,[162-165] and causal increases of autism in children - all due to particulate matter exposure.[221-226]
Other examples are that fetuses may be born prematurely or even die, have birth defects, and that children get more lung issues after birth.[176-184]
The problems don't stop there:
Even as an adult, air pollution will also make you less productive. If the indoor air quality of your office is poor, you'll lose 6-9% of productivity each day.
The ultimate office: no air pollution and plenty of sunlight.
My main goal with this section was to demonstrate that the particulate matter health effects are very negative
Remember that are skeptical towards the negative health effects of air pollution, not understanding the extent of the damage that's being done.
I hope you are convinced by now...
Advanced explanation: short-term causal models are available for studying the effects of PM exposure on health, but longer-term causal models are not that prevalent as of right now - especially for PM0.1. I'm very interested in longer-term studies of particulate matter exposure.[105; 166]
I've already alluded in the section above that some groups of people should be more worried about exposing themselves to particulate matter though.
Let's find out...
You're more susceptible to particulate matter's negative health consequences if you are:[40; 44; 56; 58; 63; 153; 305-307]
Because children breathe a relatively greater amount of air, particulate matter affects them more than adults. Children also have immune systems that have yet to fully develop, making them more susceptible--and lastly, children just spend more time outside, ensuring they're exposed to more particulate matter.
If you already have lung issues, such as asthma. With lung diseases, you've already got less leeway, and particulate matter further decreases that maneuverability room...
Examples are currently having heart problems or diabetes - your overall health is lower in such instances so that you're less well able to cope with particulate matter exposure.
Yes, particulate matter hits you harder if you are of older age - elderly simply have less resilience than younger people.
Remark: there does not seem to be any difference between how ethnicity are affected by particulate matter exposure.
Worldwide, the greatest overall burden of particulate matter exposure is actually carried by elderly people in low to mid-income countries.
Some of these countries have very high atmospheric particulate matter levels, which is toxic when combined with the lowered defensiveness of elderly people.
Almost done considering the health effects...
Let's consider another problem: how long does particulate matter exposure affect you?[47-49]
The answer varies, but some studies suggest that your health can be negatively influenced for decades after the initial (heavy) exposure.
Of course, the exposure I get today will most heavily impact how I function today and tomorrow. But overall, previous exposures can possibly influence your health years down the road.
Even your brain volume and the health of your blood today may thus have been negatively affected by previous particulate matter exposure.
Naturally, past exposure to particulate matter becomes less and less damaging over time. Your current exposure thus remains the most important predicting factor in determining what particulate matter's health effects are - unless you ended up with an irreversible disease.
The bottom line is that timing matters: just a few hours of exposure to particulate matter can increase your risk of having adverse heart problems, for example.
In other words, if you travel to London tomorrow, the air there will immediately have negative consequences to your health...
Keep in mind that the full health effects of particulate matter are even more complex:
While different chemicals in particular matter are important for the eventual outcome, I've chosen not to distinguish between all these effects in this blog post.
This blog post is already running too long for some people to read...
Treating tens if not hundreds of different chemicals such as potassium or nickel, and their respective effects on different diseases would make the topic unnecessarily complex for most readers.
Also remember that particulate matter is not the only type of air pollution.
Particulate matter is made up of 1) solids; 2) liquids. Lots of evidence also exists, however, that gases can negatively impact your health.
A simple example of a gas is benzene that you may get exposed to when filling up the tank of your car.
I do want to re-emphasize one point:
PM0.1 or "ultrafine" particulate matter is the most damaging to your helath.[218; 219]
First of all, ultrafine PM0.1 can be directly taken up into the bloodstream, without filtering in the nose, airways, or lungs.
I've chosen not to go into more detail into the specific PM0.1 exposure issue unless many people request a section specifically targeted towards PM0.1 in a new version of this blog post.
Getting into the nitty-gritty of PM0.1 won't interest most poeple.
One last remark of this section:
Please keep in mind that much science inquiring into PM2.5 and PM0.1 specifically has yet to be carried out. Remember that PM2.5 has been intensively investigated for only two decades, and PM0.1 has hit the spotlight for just a few years.
Some of these substances' health effects are just not yet known. The depressive list of health consequences you've read before will thus need to be updated over time...
PM10 has been studied for decades, however.
On the upside:
Fortunately, this blog post series now transitions to finding solutions for the particulate matter air pollution problem.
The next section treats the topic of measuring the particulate matter levels in your environment.
I hope you've learned that air pollutants, specifically particulate matter, have an enormous impact on your health.
So, contrary to popular belief, health is not just about "eating less and moving more". particulate matter has a wide spectrum of effects, increasing your risk for diabetes and heart disease, slowly poisoning your lungs over time, creating oxidative stress, and damaging your mitochondria.
Especially the young, old, and people with (pre-)existing conditions should be very careful.
The third and fourth installments will change the dynamic of this blog post series towards a more positive message! You'll learn how to lower the damage particulate matter does to your health, in fact!
This is a post by Bart Wolbers. Bart finished degrees in Physical Therapy (B), Philosophy (BA and MA), Philosophy of Science and Technology (MS - with distinction), and Clinical Health Science (MS), and is currently a health consultant at Alexfergus.com.
 Anderson JO, Thundiyil JG, Stolbach A. Clearing the air: a review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health. J Med Toxicol. 2012 Jun;8(2):166-75. doi: 10.1007/s13181-011-0203-1.
 World Health Organization. Burden of disease from Ambient Air Pollution for 2012.
 World Health Organization. Burden of disease from ambient air pollution for 2016; Version 5 May 2018.
 Cohen AJ, Ross Anderson H, ... Smith K. The global burden of disease due to outdoor air pollution. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2005 Jul 9-23;68(13-14):1301-7.
 EPA. Air Quality Trends. Air Quality - National Summary.
 Europoean Environmental Agency. EEA Report No 13/2017.
 Baldacci S, Maio S, ... HEALS Study. Allergy and asthma: Effects of the exposure to particulate matter and biological allergens. Respir Med. 2015 Sep;109(9):1089-104. doi: 10.1016/j.rmed.2015.05.017. Epub 2015 May 22.
 Zahradnik E, Raulf M. Animal allergens and their presence in the environment.Front Immunol. 2014 Mar 3;5:76. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2014.00076. eCollection 2014.
 Salo PM, Zeldin DC. Does exposure to cats and dogs decrease the risk of allergic sensitization and disease? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Oct;124(4):751-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2009.08.012.
 Ownby D, Johnson CC. Recent Understandings of Pet Allergies. F1000Res. 2016 Jan 27;5. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-108. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7044.1. eCollection 2016.
 Kankaria A, Nongkynrih B, Gupta SK. Indoor air pollution in India: implications on health and its control. Indian J Community Med. 2014 Oct;39(4):203-7. doi: 10.4103/0970-0218.143019.
 Dales R, Liu L, Wheeler AJ, Gilbert NL. Quality of indoor residential air and health. CMAJ. 2008 Jul 15;179(2):147-52. doi: 10.1503/cmaj.070359.
 Nemery B, Hoet PH, Nemmar A. The Meuse Valley fog of 1930: an air pollution disaster. Lancet. 2001 Mar 3;357(9257):704-8.
 Bell ML, Davis DL, Fletcher T. A retrospective assessment of mortality from the London smog episode of 1952: the role of influenza and pollution. Environ Health Perspect. 2004 Jan;112(1):6-8.
 Lowsen DH, Conway GA. Air Pollution in Major Chinese Cities: Some Progress, But Much More to Do. J Environ Prot (Irvine, Calif). 2016 Dec;7(13):2081-2094. doi: 10.4236/jep.2016.713162. Epub 2016 Dec 29.
 Weinhold B. EPA proposes tighter particulate air pollution standards. Environ Health Perspect. 2012 Sep;120(9):A348-9.
 EPA. National Ambient Air Quality Standards for Particulate Matter; Proposed Rule. Fed Reg 77(126):38889-39055 (2012)
 EPA. National Ambient Air Quality Standards, NAAQS Table.
 European Commission. Air Quality Standards.
 European Commission. Council Directive 1999/30/EC.
 European Commission. Council Directive 2008/50/EC.
 World Health Organization. Concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5).
 World Health Organization. Air quality guidelines for particulate matter, ozone, nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. 2005.
 Rawls J. A Theory Of Justice. First ed. Belknap 1971.
 Locke J. Second Treatise on Government, 1689.
 Mill JS. On Liberty, 1859.
 Rothbard M. Egalitarianism as a Revolt Against Nature and Other Essays. 1963
 World Health Organization Europe. Health Effects Of Particulate Matter. Policy implications for countries in eastern Europe, Caucasus and central Asia.
 Report of a WHO Workshop. Health relevance of particulate matter from various sources. Copenhagen, WHO Regional Office for Europe, 2007.
 WHO Europe. Health risks of particulate matter from long-range transboundary air pollution. Joint WHO / Convention Task Force on the Health Aspects of Air Pollution. E88189 2006.
 Zeka A, Zanobetti A, Schwartz J. Short term effects of particulate matter on cause specific mortality: effects of lags and modification by city characteristics. Occup Environ Med. 2005 Oct;62(10):718-25.
 Achilleos S, Kioumourtzoglou MA,... Papatheodorou SI. Acute effects of fine particulate matter constituents on mortality: A systematic review and meta-regression analysis. Environ Int. 2017 Dec;109:89-100. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.09.010. Epub 2017 Oct 5.
 Atkinson RW, Mills IC, Walton HA, Anderson HR. Fine particle components and health--a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiological time series studies of daily mortality and hospital admissions. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2015 Mar-Apr;25(2):208-14. doi: 10.1038/jes.2014.63. Epub 2014 Sep 17.
 Kloog I, Ridgway B, ... Schwartz JD. Long- and short-term exposure to PM2.5 and mortality: using novel exposure models. Epidemiology. 2013 Jul;24(4):555-61. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e318294beaa.
 Blount RJ, Pascopella L, ... Nahid P. Traffic-Related Air Pollution and All-Cause Mortality during Tuberculosis Treatment in California. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Sep 29;125(9):097026. doi: 10.1289/EHP1699.
 Mills IC, Atkinson RW, ... Strachan DP. Distinguishing the associations between daily mortality and hospital admissions and nitrogen dioxide from those of particulate matter: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open. 2016 Jul 21;6(7):e010751. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-010751.
 Franklin M, Zeka A, Schwartz J. Association between PM2.5 and all-cause and specific-cause mortality in 27 US communities. Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology volume 17, 2007: 279–287.
 Pelucchi C, Negri E, ... La Vecchia C. Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies. BMC Public Health. 2009 Dec 8;9:453. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-453.
 Li T, Yan M, Sun Q, Anderson GB. Mortality risks from a spectrum of causes associated with wide-ranging exposure to fine particulate matter: A case-crossover study in Beijing, China. Environ Int. 2018 Feb;111:52-59. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.10.023. Epub 2017 Nov 22.
 Puett RC, Hart JE, Suh H, Mittleman M, Laden F. Particulate matter exposures, mortality, and cardiovascular disease in the health professionals follow-up study. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Aug;119(8):1130-5. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1002921. Epub 2011 Mar 31.
 Son JY, Bell ML. The relationships between short-term exposure to particulate matter and mortality in Korea: Impact of particulate matter exposure metrics for sub-daily exposures. Environ Res Lett. 2013 Mar;8(1):014015.
 Hart JE, Liao X, ... Laden F. The association of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on all-cause mortality in the Nurses' Health Study and the impact of measurement-error correction. Environ Health. 2015 May 1;14:38. doi: 10.1186/s12940-015-0027-6.
 Jiménez E, Linares C, Rodríguez LF, Bleda MJ, Díaz J. Short-term impact of particulate matter (PM2.5) on daily mortality among the over-75 age group in Madrid (Spain). Sci Total Environ. 2009 Oct 15;407(21):5486-92. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2009.06.038. Epub 2009 Jul 31.
 Badaloni C, Cesaroni G, ... Forastiere F. Effects of long-term exposure to particulate matter and metal components on mortality in the Rome longitudinal study. Environ Int. 2017 Dec;109:146-154. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.09.005. Epub 2017 Sep 30.
 Parker JD, Kravets N, Vaidyanathan A. Particulate Matter Air Pollution Exposure and Heart Disease Mortality Risks by Race and Ethnicity in the United States: 1997 to 2009 National Health Interview Survey With Mortality Follow-Up Through 2011. Circulation. 2018
 Kim OJ, Kim SY, Kim H. Association between Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution and Mortality in a South Korean National Cohort: Comparison across Different Exposure Assessment Approaches. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Sep 23;14(10). pii: E1103. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14101103.
 Hansell A, Ghosh RE, ... Gulliver J. Historic air pollution exposure and long-term mortality risks in England and Wales: prospective longitudinal cohort study. Thorax. 2016 Apr;71(4):330-8. doi: 10.1136/thoraxjnl-2015-207111. Epub 2016 Feb 8.
 Torjesen I. Current exposure to pollution has greater health impact than former exposure, study shows. BMJ. 2016 Feb 8;352:i807. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i807.
 Power MC, Lamichhane AP, ... Whitsel EA. The Association of Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution with Brain MRI Findings: The ARIC Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2018 Feb 16;126(2):027009. doi: 10.1289/EHP2152.
 Yin P, Brauer M, ... Zhou M. Long-term Fine Particulate Matter Exposure and Nonaccidental and Cause-specific Mortality in a Large National Cohort of Chinese Men. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Nov 7;125(11):117002. doi: 10.1289/EHP1673.
 Zhang Z, Chan TC, ... Lao XQ. Long-term exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with platelet counts in adults. Environ Pollut. 2018 Sep;240:432-439. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.04.123. Epub 2018 May 10.
 Qiu H, Schooling CM, ... Tian L. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and type 2 diabetes mellitus in elderly: A cohort study in Hong Kong. Environ Int. 2018 Apr;113:350-356. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.01.008. Epub 2018 Feb 1.
 Lim YH, Bae HJ, ... Hong YC. Vascular and cardiac autonomic function and PM2.5 constituents among the elderly: A longitudinal study. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 31;607-608:847-854. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.07.077. Epub 2017 Jul 27.
 Kim H, Kim J, ... Chae IH. Cardiovascular Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Air Pollution: A Population-Based Study With 900 845 Person-Years of Follow-up. J Am Heart Assoc. 2017 Nov 8;6(11). pii: e007170. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.117.007170.
 Adhikari R, D'Souza J, ... Adar SD. Long-term Coarse Particulate Matter Exposure and Heart Rate Variability in the Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. Epidemiology. 2016 May;27(3):405-13. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000455.
 Zhang Z, Laden F, Forman JP, Hart JE. Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter and Self-Reported Hypertension: A Prospective Analysis in the Nurses' Health Study. Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Sep;124(9):1414-20. doi: 10.1289/EHP163. Epub 2016 May 13.
 Du Y, Xu X, ... Wang J. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: the epidemiological, biomedical and clinical evidence. J Thorac Dis. 2016 Jan;8(1):E8-E19. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2015.11.37.
 Martinelli N, Olivieri O, Girelli D. Air particulate matter and cardiovascular disease: a narrative review. Eur J Intern Med. 2013 Jun;24(4):295-302. doi: 10.1016/j.ejim.2013.04.001. Epub 2013 May 4.
 Cui Y, Sun Q, Liu Z. Ambient particulate matter exposure and cardiovascular diseases: a focus on progenitor and stem cells. J Cell Mol Med. 2016 May;20(5):782-93. doi: 10.1111/jcmm.12822. Epub 2016 Mar 14.
 Fiordelisi A, Piscitelli P, ... Sorriento D. The mechanisms of air pollution and particulate matter in cardiovascular diseases. Heart Fail Rev. 2017 May;22(3):337-347. doi: 10.1007/s10741-017-9606-7.
 An Z, Jin Y, ... Wu W. Impact of Particulate Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Health. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2018 Feb 22;18(3):15. doi: 10.1007/s11882-018-0768-8.
 Shanley RP, Hayes RB, ... Ahn J. Particulate Air Pollution and Clinical Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors. Epidemiology. 2016 Mar;27(2):291-8. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0000000000000426.
 Ostro BD, Feng WY, Broadwin R, Malig BJ, Green RS, Lipsett MJ. The impact of components of fine particulate matter on cardiovascular mortality in susceptible subpopulations. Occup Environ Med. 2008 Nov;65(11):750-6. doi: 10.1136/oem.2007.036673. Epub 2008 Apr 16.
 Nasser Z, Salameh P, ... Leveque A. Outdoor particulate matter (PM) and associated cardiovascular diseases in the Middle East. Int J Occup Med Environ Health. 2015;28(4):641-61. doi: 10.13075/ijomeh.1896.00186.
 Fang SC, Cassidy A, Christiani DC. A systematic review of occupational exposure to particulate matter and cardiovascular disease. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2010 Apr;7(4):1773-806. doi: 10.3390/ijerph7041773. Epub 2010 Apr 19.
 Rao X, Zhong J, Brook RD, Rajagopalan S. Effect of Particulate Matter Air Pollution on Cardiovascular Oxidative Stress Pathways. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2018 Mar 20;28(9):797-818. doi: 10.1089/ars.2017.7394. Epub 2017 Dec 12.
 Li H, Cai J, ... Kan H. Particulate Matter Exposure and Stress Hormone Levels: A Randomized, Double-Blind, Crossover Trial of Air Purification. Circulation. 2017 Aug 15;136(7):618-627. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.116.026796.
 Hicken MT, Dvonch JT, Schulz AJ, Mentz G, Max P. Fine particulate matter air pollution and blood pressure: the modifying role of psychosocial stress. Environ Res. 2014 Aug;133:195-203. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.06.001. Epub 2014 Jun 24.
 Crobeddu B, Aragao-Santiago L, Bui LC, Boland S, Baeza Squiban A. Oxidative potential of particulate matter 2.5 as predictive indicator of cellular stress. Environ Pollut. 2017 Nov;230:125-133. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.06.051. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
 Crobeddu B, Aragao-Santiago L, Bui LC, Boland S, Baeza Squiban A. Oxidative potential of particulate matter 2.5 as predictive indicator of cellular stress. Environ Pollut. 2017 Nov;230:125-133. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.06.051. Epub 2017 Jun 22.
 Piao MJ, Ahn MJ, ... Hyun JW. Particulate matter 2.5 damages skin cells by inducing oxidative stress, subcellular organelle dysfunction, and apoptosis. Arch Toxicol. 2018 Jun;92(6):2077-2091. doi: 10.1007/s00204-018-2197-9. Epub 2018 Mar 26.
 Pohl D, Benseler S. Systemic inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. Handb Clin Neurol. 2013;112:1243-52. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-444-52910-7.00047-7.
 Multhoff G, Molls M, Radons J. Chronic inflammation in cancer development. Front Immunol. 2012 Jan 12;2:98. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2011.00098. eCollection 2011.
 Amor S, Puentes F, Baker D, van der Valk P. Inflammation in neurodegenerative diseases. Immunology. 2010 Feb;129(2):154-69. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2567.2009.03225.x.
 MohanKumar SM, Campbell A, Block M, Veronesi B. Particulate matter, oxidative stress and neurotoxicity. Neurotoxicology. 2008 May;29(3):479-88. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2007.12.004. Epub 2008 Jan 4.
 Lawal AO. Air particulate matter induced oxidative stress and inflammation in cardiovascular disease and atherosclerosis: The role of Nrf2 and AhR-mediated pathways. Toxicol Lett. 2017 Mar 15;270:88-95. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2017.01.017. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
 Fagundes LS, Fleck Ada S, ... Rhoden CR. Direct contact with particulate matter increases oxidative stress in different brain structures. Inhal Toxicol. 2015;27(10):462-7. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2015.1060278. Epub 2015 Sep 1.
 Xia T, Kovochich M, Nel A. The role of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress in mediating particulate matter injury. Clin Occup Environ Med. 2006;5(4):817-36.
 Watterson TL, Hamilton B, Martin R, Coulombe RA Jr. Urban particulate matter causes ER stress and the unfolded protein response in human lung cells. Toxicol Sci. 2009 Nov;112(1):111-22. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfp186. Epub 2009 Aug 12.
 Hong Z, Guo Z, ... Deng C. Airborne Fine Particulate Matter Induces Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Human Nasal Epithelial Cells. Tohoku J Exp Med. 2016 Jun;239(2):117-25. doi: 10.1620/tjem.239.117.
 Ailshire J, Karraker A, Clarke P. Neighborhood social stressors, fine particulate matter air pollution, and cognitive function among older U.S. adults. Soc Sci Med. 2017 Jan;172:56-63. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2016.11.019. Epub 2016 Nov 14.
 Laing S, Wang G, ... Zhang K. Airborne particulate matter selectively activates endoplasmic reticulum stress response in the lung and liver tissues. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2010 Oct;299(4):C736-49. doi: 10.1152/ajpcell.00529.2009. Epub 2010 Jun 16.
 Brunst KJ, Sanchez-Guerra M, ... Wright RJ. Prenatal particulate matter exposure and mitochondrial dysfunction at the maternal-fetal interface: Effect modification by maternal lifetime trauma and child sex. Environ Int. 2018 Mar;112:49-58. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.12.020. Epub 2017 Dec 15.
 Golomb E, Matza D,... Shapira OM. Myocardial mitochondrial injury induced by pulmonary exposure to particulate matter in rats. Toxicol Pathol. 2012 Jul;40(5):779-88. doi: 10.1177/0192623312441409. Epub 2012 May 1.
 Malinska D, Szymański J,... Wieckowski MR. Assessment of mitochondrial function following short- and long-term exposure of human bronchial epithelial cells to total particulate matter from a candidate modified-risk tobacco product and reference cigarettes. Food Chem Toxicol. 2018 May;115:1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2018.02.013. Epub 2018 Feb 13.
 Nichols CE, Shepherd DL, ... Hollander JM. Cardiac and mitochondrial dysfunction following acute pulmonary exposure to mountaintop removal mining particulate matter. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Dec 15;309(12):H2017-30. doi: 10.1152/ajpheart.00353.2015. Epub 2015 Oct 23.
 Soberanes S, Gonzalez A, Urich D, ... Budinger GR. Particulate matter Air Pollution induces hypermethylation of the p16 promoter Via a mitochondrial ROS-JNK-DNMT1 pathway. Sci Rep. 2012;2:275. doi: 10.1038/srep00275. Epub 2012 Feb 17.
 Hou L, Zhu ZZ, Zhang X, ... Baccarelli A. Airborne particulate matter and mitochondrial damage: a cross-sectional study. Environ Health. 2010 Aug 9;9:48. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-9-48.
 Bhargava A, Tamrakar S, ... Mishra PK. Ultrafine particulate matter impairs mitochondrial redox homeostasis and activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase mediated DNA damage responses in lymphocytes. Environ Pollut. 2018 Mar;234:406-419. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.11.093. Epub 2017 Dec 1.
 Xia T, Kovochich M, Nel AE. Impairment of mitochondrial function by particulate matter (PM) and their toxic components: implications for PM-induced cardiovascular and lung disease. Front Biosci. 2007 Jan 1;12:1238-46.
 Janssen BG, Byun HM, ... Nawrot TS. Placental mitochondrial methylation and exposure to airborne particulate matter in the early life environment: An ENVIRONAGE birth cohort study. Epigenetics. 2015;10(6):536-44. doi: 10.1080/15592294.2015.1048412.
 Yang X, Feng L ... Sun Z. Cytotoxicity induced by fine particulate matter (PM2.5) via mitochondria-mediated apoptosis pathway in human cardiomyocytes. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf. 2018 Jun 6;161:198-207. doi: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2018.05.092.
 Nelin TD, Joseph AM, Gorr MW, Wold LE. Direct and indirect effects of particulate matter on the cardiovascular system. Toxicol Lett. 2012 Feb 5;208(3):293-9. doi: 10.1016/j.toxlet.2011.11.008. Epub 2011 Nov 18.
 Folino AF, Scapellato ML,... Lotti M. Individual exposure to particulate matter and the short-term arrhythmic and autonomic profiles in patients with myocardial infarction. Eur Heart J. 2009 Jul;30(13):1614-20. doi: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehp136. Epub 2009 May 2.
 Wu S, Deng F, Niu J, Huang Q, Liu Y, Guo X. The relationship between traffic-related air pollutants and cardiac autonomic function in a panel of healthy adults: a further analysis with existing data. Inhal Toxicol. 2011 Apr;23(5):289-303. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2011.568976.
 Loane C, Pilinis C, Lekkas TD, Politis M. Ambient particulate matter and its potential neurological consequences. Rev Neurosci. 2013;24(3):323-35. doi: 10.1515/revneuro-2013-0001.
 Wang Y, Xiong L, Tang M. Toxicity of inhaled particulate matter on the central nervous system: neuroinflammation, neuropsychological effects and neurodegenerative disease. J Appl Toxicol. 2017 Jun;37(6):644-667. doi: 10.1002/jat.3451. Epub 2017 Mar 16.
 Bhatt DP, Puig KL, ... Combs CK. A pilot study to assess effects of long-term inhalation of airborne particulate matter on early Alzheimer-like changes in the mouse brain. PLoS One. 2015 May 20;10(5):e0127102. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127102. eCollection 2015.
 Wang BR, Shi JQ, ... Zhang YD. PM2.5 exposure aggravates oligomeric amyloid beta-induced neuronal injury and promotes NLRP3 inflammasome activation in an in vitro model of Alzheimer's disease. J Neuroinflammation. 2018 May 2;15(1):132. doi: 10.1186/s12974-018-1178-5.
 Palacios N, Fitzgerald KC, ... Laden F. Particulate matter and risk of Parkinson disease in a large prospective study of women. Environ Health. 2014 Oct 7;13:80. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-13-80.
 Palacios N. Air pollution and Parkinson's disease - evidence and future directions. Rev Environ Health. 2017 Dec 20;32(4):303-313. doi: 10.1515/reveh-2017-0009.
 Kim SY, Kim JK, ... Park MK. Effects of inhaled particulate matter on the central nervous system in mice.Neurotoxicology. 2018 Jul;67:169-177. doi: 10.1016/j.neuro.2018.06.001. Epub 2018 Jun 4.
 Kulas JA, Hettwer JV, ... Combs CK. In utero exposure to fine particulate matter results in an altered neuroimmune phenotype in adult mice. Environ Pollut. 2018 Oct;241:279-288. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.047. Epub 2018 May 22.
 Verones B, Oortgiesen M. Neurogenic inflammation and particulate matter (PM) air pollutants. Neurotoxicology. 2001 Dec;22(6):795-810.
 Wyzga RE, Rohr AC. Long-term particulate matter exposure: Attributing health effects to individual PM components. J Air & Waste Management Association 65(5) 2015 523-543.
 Wilker EH, Preis SR, ... Mittleman MA. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter, residential proximity to major roads and measures of brain structure. Stroke. 2015 May;46(5):1161-6. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.008348.
 Schmidt S. Particulate Matter and Cognition: Using Brain Imaging to Study Impacts of Air Pollution. Environ Health Perspect. 2018 Jun 8;126(6):064003. doi: 10.1289/EHP3445. eCollection 2018 Jun.
 Wilker EH, Martinez-Ramirez S, Kloog ... Viswanathan A. Fine Particulate Matter, Residential Proximity to Major Roads, and Markers of Small Vessel Disease in a Memory Study Population. J Alzheimers Dis. 2016 Jun 30;53(4):1315-23. doi: 10.3233/JAD-151143.
 Weuve J, Puett RC, ... Grodstein F. Exposure to particulate air pollution and cognitive decline in older women. Arch Intern Med. 2012 Feb 13;172(3):219-27. doi: 10.1001/archinternmed.2011.683.
 Brockmeyer S, D'Angiulli A. How air pollution alters brain development: the role of neuroinflammation. Transl Neurosci. 2016 Mar 21;7(1):24-30. doi: 10.1515/tnsci-2016-0005. eCollection 2016.
 Scheers H, Jacobs L, Casas L, Nemery B, Nawrot TS. Long-Term Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is a Risk Factor for Stroke: Meta-Analytical Evidence. Stroke. 2015 Nov;46(11):3058-66. doi: 10.1161/STROKEAHA.115.009913. Epub 2015 Oct 13.
 Guxens M, Lubczyńska MJ, ... El Marroun H. Air Pollution Exposure During Fetal Life, Brain Morphology, and Cognitive Function in School-Age Children. Biol Psychiatry. 2018 Aug 15;84(4):295-303. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2018.01.016. Epub 2018 Jan 31.
 Ailshire JA, Clarke P. Fine particulate matter air pollution and cognitive function among U.S. older adults. J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci. 2015 Mar;70(2):322-8. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbu064. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
 Campbell A, Oldham M, ... Kleinman M. Particulate matter in polluted air may increase biomarkers of inflammation in mouse brain. Neurotoxicology. 2005 Jan;26(1):133-40.
 Cacciottolo M, Wang X, ... Chen JC. Particulate air pollutants, APOE alleles and their contributions to cognitive impairment in older women and to amyloidogenesis in experimental models. Transl Psychiatry. 2017 Jan 31;7(1):e1022. doi: 10.1038/tp.2016.280.
 Guo L, Zhu N, Guo Z, Li GK, Chen C, Sang N, Yao QC. Particulate matter (PM10) exposure induces endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in rat brain. J Hazard Mater. 2012 Apr 30;213-214:28-37. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2012.01.034. Epub 2012 Jan 20.
 Campbell A, Araujo JA, Li H, Sioutas C, Kleinman M. Particulate matter induced enhancement of inflammatory markers in the brains of apolipoprotein E knockout mice. J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2009 Aug;9(8):5099-104.
 Newell K, Kartsonaki C, Lam KBH, Kurmi OP. Cardiorespiratory health effects of particulate ambient air pollution exposure in low-income and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Planet Health. 2017 Dec;1(9):e368-e380. doi: 10.1016/S2542-5196(17)30166-3. Epub 2017 Dec 8.
 Requia WJ, Adams MD, ... Mahmoud M. Global Association of Air Pollution and Cardiorespiratory Diseases: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, and Investigation of Modifier Variables. Am J Public Health. 2018 Apr;108(S2):S123-S130. doi: 10.2105/AJPH.2017.303839. Epub 2017 Oct 26.
 Fajersztajn L, Saldiva P, ... Buehler AM. Short-term effects of fine particulate matter pollution on daily health events in Latin America: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Public Health. 2017 Sep;62(7):729-738. doi: 10.1007/s00038-017-0960-y. Epub 2017 Mar 2.
 Li J, Sun S, ... Tian L. Major air pollutants and risk of COPD exacerbations: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis. 2016 Dec 12;11:3079-3091. doi: 10.2147/COPD.S122282. eCollection 2016.
 Liu Q, Xu C, ... Zhao P. Effect of exposure to ambient PM2.5 pollution on the risk of respiratory tract diseases: a meta-analysis of cohort studies. J Biomed Res. 2017 Jan 19;31(2):130-142. doi: 10.7555/JBR.31.20160071.
 Xing YF, Xu YH, Shi MH, Lian YX. The impact of PM2.5 on the human respiratory system. J Thorac Dis. 2016 Jan;8(1):E69-74. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2016.01.19.
 Lim H, Kwon HJ, ... Choi WJ. Short-term Effect of Fine Particulate Matter on Children's Hospital Admissions and Emergency Department Visits for Asthma: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Prev Med Public Health. 2016 Jul;49(4):205-19. doi: 10.3961/jpmph.16.037.
 Paulin L, Hansel N. Particulate air pollution and impaired lung function. F1000Res. 2016 Feb 22;5. pii: F1000 Faculty Rev-201. doi: 10.12688/f1000research.7108.1. eCollection 2016.
 Hamra GB, Guha N, Cohen A, ... Loomis D. Outdoor particulate matter exposure and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Sep;122(9):906-11. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1408092. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
 Hamra GB, Guha N, ... Loomis D. Outdoor particulate matter exposure and lung cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Sep;122(9):906-11. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1408092. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
 Bloemsma LD, Hoek G, Smit LAM. Panel studies of air pollution in patients with COPD: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2016 Nov;151:458-468. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.018. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
 Roy A, Hu W, Wei F, Korn L, Chapman RS, Zhang JJ. Ambient particulate matter and lung function growth in Chinese children. Epidemiology. 2012 May;23(3):464-72. doi: 10.1097/EDE.0b013e31824cbd6d.
 de Hartog JJ, Ayres JG, ... Hoek G. Lung function and indicators of exposure to indoor and outdoor particulate matter among asthma and COPD patients. Occup Environ Med. 2010 Jan;67(1):2-10. doi: 10.1136/oem.2008.040857. Epub 2009 Sep 6.
 Koenig JQ, Larson TV, ... Pierson WE. Pulmonary function changes in children associated with fine particulate matter. Environ Res. 1993 Oct;63(1):26-38.
 Guo C1, Zhang Z1, ... Lao XQ. Effect of long-term exposure to fine particulate matter on lung function decline and risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Taiwan: a longitudinal, cohort study. Lancet Planet Health. 2018 Mar;2(3):e114-e125. doi: 10.1016/S2542-5196(18)30028-7. Epub 2018 Mar 2.
 Horak F Jr, Studnicka M, ... Frischer T. Particulate matter and lung function growth in children: a 3-yr follow-up study in Austrian schoolchildren. Eur Respir J. 2002 May;19(5):838-45.
 Wang C, Cai J,... Kan H. Personal exposure to fine particulate matter, lung function and serum club cell secretory protein (Clara). Environ Pollut. 2017 Jun;225:450-455. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2017.02.068. Epub 2017 Mar 9.
 Ibhafidon LI, Obaseki DO, ... Obioh I. Respiratory symptoms, lung function and particulate matter pollution in residential indoor environment in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Niger Med J. 2014 Jan;55(1):48-53. doi: 10.4103/0300-1652.128164.
 Kim JH, Lim DH, Kim JK, Jeong SJ, Son BK. Effects of particulate matter (PM10) on the pulmonary function of middle-school children. J Korean Med Sci. 2005 Feb;20(1):42-5.
 Wu S, Deng F, ... Guo X. Fine particulate matter, temperature, and lung function in healthy adults: findings from the HVNR study. Chemosphere. 2014 Aug;108:168-74. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.01.032. Epub 2014 Feb 16.
 Tashakkor AY, Chow KS, Carlsten C. Modification by antioxidant supplementation of changes in human lung function associated with air pollutant exposure: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2011 Jul 5;11:532. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-532.
 Bloemsma LD, Hoek G, Smit LAM. Panel studies of air pollution in patients with COPD: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Res. 2016 Nov;151:458-468. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.08.018. Epub 2016 Aug 24.
 Chen H, Goldberg MS, Villeneuve PJ. A systematic review of the relation between long-term exposure to ambient air pollution and chronic diseases. Rev Environ Health. 2008 Oct-Dec;23(4):243-97.
 Ali MU, Liu G, ... Munir MAM. A systematic review on global pollution status of particulate matter-associated potential toxic elements and health perspectives in urban environment. Environ Geochem Health. 2018 Oct 8. doi: 10.1007/s10653-018-0203-z.
 Cui P, Huang Y, Han J, Song F, Chen K. Ambient particulate matter and lung cancer incidence and mortality: a meta-analysis of prospective studies. Eur J Public Health. 2015 Apr;25(2):324-9. doi: 10.1093/eurpub/cku145. Epub 2014 Sep 8.
 Carter E, Norris C, ... Baumgartner J. Assessing Exposure to Household Air Pollution: A Systematic Review and Pooled Analysis of Carbon Monoxide as a Surrogate Measure of Particulate Matter. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Jul 28;125(7):076002. doi: 10.1289/EHP767.
 Ngoc LTN, Park D, Lee Y, Lee YC. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Human Skin Diseases Due to Particulate Matter. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Nov 25;14(12). pii: E1458. doi: 10.3390/ijerph14121458.
 Coker E, Kizito S. A Narrative Review on the Human Health Effects of Ambient Air Pollution in Sub-Saharan Africa: An Urgent Need for Health Effects Studies. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2018 Mar 1;15(3). pii: E427. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15030427.
 Barone-Adesi F, Dent JE, ... Whincup PH. Long-Term Exposure to Primary Traffic Pollutants and Lung Function in Children: Cross-Sectional Study and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One. 2015 Nov 30;10(11):e0142565. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0142565. eCollection 2015.
 Fan J, Li S, ... Yang K. The impact of PM2.5 on asthma emergency department visits: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Jan;23(1):843-50. doi: 10.1007/s11356-015-5321-x. Epub 2015 Sep 8.
 Khalili R, Bartell SM, ... Vieira VM. Early-life exposure to PM2.5 and risk of acute asthma clinical encounters among children in Massachusetts: a case-crossover analysis. Environ Health. 2018 Feb 21;17(1):20. doi: 10.1186/s12940-018-0361-6.
 Khreis H, Kelly C, ... Nieuwenhuijsen M. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution and risk of development of childhood asthma: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ Int. 2017 Mar;100:1-31. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2016.11.012. Epub 2016 Nov 21.
 Hehua Z, Qing C, ... Yuhong Z. The impact of prenatal exposure to air pollution on childhood wheezing and asthma: A systematic review. Environ Res. 2017 Nov;159:519-530. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.08.038. Epub 2017 Sep 8.
 Vernon MK, Wiklund I, Bell JA, Dale P, Chapman KR. What do we know about asthma triggers? a review of the literature. J Asthma. 2012 Dec;49(10):991-8. doi: 10.3109/02770903.2012.738268.
 Cao Q, Rui G, Liang Y. Study on PM2.5 pollution and the mortality due to lung cancer in China based on geographic weighted regression model. BMC Public Health. 2018 Jul 27;18(1):925. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-5844-4.
 Hoek G, Krishnan RM, ... Kaufman JD. Long-term air pollution exposure and cardio- respiratory mortality: a review. Environ Health. 2013 May 28;12(1):43. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-43.
 Whyand T, Hurst JR, Beckles M, Caplin ME. Pollution and respiratory disease: can diet or supplements help? A review. Respir Res. 2018 May 2;19(1):79. doi: 10.1186/s12931-018-0785-0.
 Consonni D, Carugno M, ... Landi MT. Outdoor particulate matter (PM10) exposure and lung cancer risk in the EAGLE study. PLoS One. 2018 Sep 14;13(9):e0203539. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0203539. eCollection 2018.
 Lamichhane DK, Kim HC, ... Park SM. Lung Cancer Risk and Residential Exposure to Air Pollution: A Korean Population-Based Case-Control Study. Yonsei Med J. 2017 Nov;58(6):1111-1118. doi: 10.3349/ymj.2017.58.6.1111.
 Shin J, Park JY, Choi J. Long-term exposure to ambient air pollutants and mental health status: A nationwide population-based cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2018 Apr 9;13(4):e0195607. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195607. eCollection 2018.
 Sheffield PE, Speranza R, ... Wright RJ. Association between particulate air pollution exposure during pregnancy and postpartum maternal psychological functioning. PLoS One. 2018 Apr 18;13(4):e0195267. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195267. eCollection 2018.
 Gao Q, Xu Q, ... Zhu H. Particulate matter air pollution associated with hospital admissions for mental disorders: A time-series study in Beijing, China. Eur Psychiatry. 2017 Jul;44:68-75. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2017.02.492. Epub 2017 Apr 7.
 Peixoto MS, de Oliveira Galvão MF, Batistuzzo de Medeiros SR. Cell death pathways of particulate matter toxicity. Chemosphere. 2017 Dec;188:32-48. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2017.08.076. Epub 2017 Aug 22.
 Baccarelli A, Martinelli I, ... Schwartz J. Exposure to particulate air pollution and risk of deep vein thrombosis. Arch Intern Med. 2008 May 12;168(9):920-7. doi: 10.1001/archinte.168.9.920.
 Valavanidis A, Fiotakis K, Vlachogianni T. Airborne particulate matter and human health: toxicological assessment and importance of size and composition of particles for oxidative damage and carcinogenic mechanisms. J Environ Sci Health C Environ Carcinog Ecotoxicol Rev. 2008 Oct-Dec;26(4):339-62. doi: 10.1080/10590500802494538.
 Mehta M, Chen LC, Gordon T, Rom W, Tang MS. Particulate matter inhibits DNA repair and enhances mutagenesis. Mutat Res. 2008 Dec 8;657(2):116-21. doi: 10.1016/j.mrgentox.2008.08.015. Epub 2008 Aug 29.
 Somers CM, McCarry BE, Malek F, Quinn JS. Reduction of particulate air pollution lowers the risk of heritable mutations in mice. Science. 2004 May 14;304(5673):1008-10.
 Risom L, Møller P, Loft S. Oxidative stress-induced DNA damage by particulate air pollution. Mutat Res. 2005 Dec 30;592(1-2):119-37. Epub 2005 Aug 8.
 Dominici F, Greenstone M, Sunstein CR. Science and regulation. Particulate matter matters. Science. 2014 Apr 18;344(6181):257-9. doi: 10.1126/science.1247348.
 Tomczak A, Miller AB, ... Villeneuve PJ. Long-term exposure to fine particulate matter air pollution and the risk of lung cancer among participants of the Canadian National Breast Screening Study. Int J Cancer. 2016 Nov 1;139(9):1958-66. doi: 10.1002/ijc.30255. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
 Liu C , Xu X, ... Rajagopalan S. Air pollution-mediated susceptibility to inflammation and insulin resistance: influence of CCR2 pathways in mice. Environ Health Perspect. 2014 Jan;122(1):17-26. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1306841. Epub 2013 Oct 22.
 Brauer M, Avila-Casado C, ... Churg A. Air pollution and retained particles in the lung. Environ Health Perspect. 2001 Oct;109(10):1039-43.
 Schulz H. Fine particulate matter - a health hazard for lungs and other organs?. Pneumologie. 2006 Oct;60(10):611-5.
 Choi H, Wang L, Lin X, Spengler JD, Perera FP. Fetal window of vulnerability to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on proportional intrauterine growth restriction. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e35464. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0035464. Epub 2012 Apr 24.
 Dejmek J, Selevan SG, Benes I, Solanský I, Srám RJ. Fetal growth and maternal exposure to particulate matter during pregnancy. Environ Health Perspect. 1999 Jun;107(6):475-80.
 Han Y, Ji Y, ... Xia Y. Effects of particulate matter exposure during pregnancy on birth weight: A retrospective cohort study in Suzhou, China. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Feb 15;615:369-374. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.236. Epub 2017 Oct 4.
 Giovannini N, Schwartz L, ... Cetin I. Particulate matter (PM10) exposure, birth and fetal-placental weight and umbilical arterial pH: results from a prospective study. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med. 2018 Mar;31(5):651-655. doi: 10.1080/14767058.2017.1293032. Epub 2017 Apr 10.
 Pearce MS, Glinianaia SV, ... Pless-Mulloli T. Particulate matter exposure during pregnancy is associated with birth weight, but not gestational age, 1962-1992: a cohort study. Environ Health. 2012 Mar 9;11:13. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-11-13.
 Ren Z, Zhu J, ... Wang J. Maternal exposure to ambient PM10 during pregnancy increases the risk of congenital heart defects: Evidence from machine learning models. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jul 15;630:1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.02.181. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
 Song J, Chen Y, ... Kong YY. Early-life exposure to air pollutants and adverse pregnancy outcomes: protocol for a prospective cohort study in Beijing. BMJ Open. 2017 Sep 3;7(9):e015895. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2017-015895.
 Symanski E, Davila M, ... Lai D. Maternal exposure to fine particulate pollution during narrow gestational periods and newborn health in Harris County, Texas. Matern Child Health J. 2014 Oct;18(8):2003-12. doi: 10.1007/s10995-014-1446-7.
 Jedrychowski WA, Perera FP,... Spengler JD. Effect of prenatal exposure to fine particulate matter on ventilatory lung function of preschool children of non-smoking mothers. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2010 Sep;24(5):492-501. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-3016.2010.01136.x.
 Sack C, Goss CH. It Starts at the Beginning: Effect of Particulate Matter In Utero. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2015 Nov 1;192(9):1025-6. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201507-1468ED.
 Trasande L, Malecha P, Attina TM. Particulate Matter Exposure and Preterm Birth: Estimates of U.S. Attributable Burden and Economic Costs. Environ Health Perspect. 2016 Dec;124(12):1913-1918. Epub 2016 Mar 29.
 Malley CS, Kuylenstierna JC, ... Ashmore MR. Preterm birth associated with maternal fine particulate matter exposure: A global, regional and national assessment. Environ Int. 2017 Apr;101:173-182. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2017.01.023. Epub 2017 Feb 10.
 DeFranco E, Moravec W, ... Chen A. Exposure to airborne particulate matter during pregnancy is associated with preterm birth: a population-based cohort study. Environ Health. 2016 Jan 15;15:6. doi: 10.1186/s12940-016-0094-3.
 Sun X, Luo X, ... Liu T. The association between fine particulate matter exposure during pregnancy and preterm birth: a meta-analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2015 Nov 18;15:300. doi: 10.1186/s12884-015-0738-2.
 Magnani ND, Muresan XM, ... Valacchi G. Skin Damage Mechanisms Related to Airborne Particulate Matter Exposure. Toxicol Sci. 2016 Jan;149(1):227-36. doi: 10.1093/toxsci/kfv230. Epub 2015 Oct 26.
 Wang T, Chiang ET, ... Garcia JG. Particulate matter disrupts human lung endothelial barrier integrity via ROS- and p38 MAPK-dependent pathways. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2010 Apr;42(4):442-9. doi: 10.1165/rcmb.2008-0402OC. Epub 2009 Jun 11.
 Bräuner EV, Mortensen J, ... Loft S. Effects of ambient air particulate exposure on blood-gas barrier permeability and lung function. Inhal Toxicol. 2009 Jan;21(1):38-47. doi: 10.1080/08958370802304735 .
 Wang T, Wang L, ... Garcia JG. Particulate matter air pollution disrupts endothelial cell barrier via calpain-mediated tight junction protein degradation. Part Fibre Toxicol. 2012 Aug 29;9:35. doi: 10.1186/1743-8977-9-35.
 Kaplan GG, Szyszkowicz M, ... Storr M. Non-specific abdominal pain and air pollution: a novel association. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47669. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0047669. Epub 2012 Oct 31.
 Kish L, Hotte N, ... Madsen KL. Environmental particulate matter induces murine intestinal inflammatory responses and alters the gut microbiome. PLoS One. 2013 Apr 24;8(4):e62220. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062220. Print 2013.
 Salim SY, Kaplan GG, Madsen KL. Air pollution effects on the gut microbiota: a link between exposure and inflammatory disease. Gut Microbes. 2014 Mar-Apr;5(2):215-9. doi: 10.4161/gmic.27251. Epub 2013 Dec 20.
 Marynowski M, Likońska A, Zatorski H, Fichna J. Role of environmental pollution in irritable bowel syndrome. World J Gastroenterol. 2015 Oct 28;21(40):11371-8. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v21.i40.11371.
 Yoshizaki K, Brito JM, ... Macchione M. The effects of particulate matter on inflammation of respiratory system: Differences between male and female. Sci Total Environ. 2017 May 15;586:284-295. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.01.221. Epub 2017 Feb 4.
 Tamagawa E, Bai N, ... van Eeden SF. Particulate matter exposure induces persistent lung inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008 Jul;295(1):L79-85. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00048.2007. Epub 2008 May 9.
 Wang J, Huang J, ... Song Y. Urban particulate matter triggers lung inflammation via the ROS-MAPK-NF-κB signaling pathway. Thorac Dis. 2017 Nov;9(11):4398-4412. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2017.09.135.
 Tamagawa E1, Bai N, ... van Eeden SF. Particulate matter exposure induces persistent lung inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2008 Jul;295(1):L79-85. doi: 10.1152/ajplung.00048.2007. Epub 2008 May 9.
 Farina F, Sancini G, ... Palestini P. Milano summer particulate matter (PM10) triggers lung inflammation and extra pulmonary adverse events in mice. PLoS One. 2013;8(2):e56636. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0056636. Epub 2013 Feb 25.
 Morishita M, Keeler G, ... Harkema J. Pulmonary retention of particulate matter is associated with airway inflammation in allergic rats exposed to air pollution in urban Detroit. Inhal Toxicol. 2004 Sep;16(10):663-74.
 Hwang SH, Park JB, Lee KJ. Exposure assessment of particulate matter and blood chromium levels in people living near a cement plant. Environ Geochem Health. 2018 Aug;40(4):1237-1246. doi: 10.1007/s10653-017-0039-y. Epub 2017 Nov 21.
 Byrd JB, Morishita M, ... Brook RD. Acute increase in blood pressure during inhalation of coarse particulate matter air pollution from an urban location. J Am Soc Hypertens. 2016 Feb;10(2):133-139.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.jash.2015.11.015. Epub 2015 Nov 26.
 Seaton A, Soutar A, ... Stout R. Particulate air pollution and the blood. Thorax. 1999 Nov;54(11):1027-32.
 Sørensen M, Daneshvar B, ... Loft S. Personal PM2.5 exposure and markers of oxidative stress in blood. Environ Health Perspect. 2003 Feb;111(2):161-6.
 Steenhof M, Janssen NA, ... Brunekreef B. Air pollution exposure affects circulating white blood cell counts in healthy subjects: the role of particle composition, oxidative potential and gaseous pollutants - the RAPTES project. Inhal Toxicol. 2014 Feb;26(3):141-65. doi: 10.3109/08958378.2013.861884.
 Raaschou-Nielsen O, Andersen ZJ, ... Hoek G. Air pollution and lung cancer incidence in 17 European cohorts: prospective analyses from the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE). Lancet Oncol. 2013 Aug;14(9):813-22. doi: 10.1016/S1470-2045(13)70279-1. Epub 2013 Jul 10.
 Panis LI, Geus B, ... Meeusen R. Exposure to particulate matter in traffic: A comparison of cyclists and car passengers. Atmospheric Environment 44(19} 2010: 2263-2270.
 Our World In Data. Global Burden Of Disease 2016.
 States Of Global Affair. State Of Global Air 2018: A Special Report On Global Exposure To Air Pollution And Its Disease Burden.
 United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division (2014). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2014 Revision, Highlights (ST/ESA/SER.A/352)
 Meng QY, Spector D, Colome S, Turpin B. Determinants of Indoor and Personal Exposure to PM(2.5) of Indoor and Outdoor Origin during the RIOPA Study. Atmos Environ (1994). 2009 Nov;43(36):5750-5758.
 Lin LY, Chuang HC, Liu IJ, Chen HW, Chuang KJ. Reducing indoor air pollution by air conditioning is associated with improvements in cardiovascular health among the general population. Sci Total Environ. 2013 Oct 1;463-464:176-81. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.05.093. Epub 2013 Jun 23.
 Huang YL, Chen HW, ... Chuang KJ. Personal exposure to household particulate matter, household activities and heart rate variability among housewives. PLoS One. 2014 Mar 3;9(3):e89969. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0089969. eCollection 2014.
 Macintosh DL, Myatt TA, ... Spengler JD. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2008 Nov;58(11):1474-82.
 Macintosh DL, Myatt TA, ... Spengler JD. Whole house particle removal and clean air delivery rates for in-duct and portable ventilation systems. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2008 Nov;58(11):1474-82.
 Park HK, Cheng KC, ... Nadeau KC. Effectiveness of air purifier on health outcomes and indoor particles in homes of children with allergic diseases in Fresno, California: A pilot study. J Asthma. 2017 May;54(4):341-346. doi: 10.1080/02770903.2016.1218011. Epub 2016 Oct 10.
 Sublett JL. Effectiveness of air filters and air cleaners in allergic respiratory diseases: a review of the recent literature. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2011 Oct;11(5):395-402. doi: 10.1007/s11882-011-0208-5.
 Lim SS, Vos T, ... Memish ZA. A comparative risk assessment of burden of disease and injury attributable to 67 risk factors and risk factor clusters in 21 regions, 1990-2010: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2010. Lancet. 2012 Dec 15;380(9859):2224-60. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61766-8.
 Anderson JO, Thundiyil JG, Stolbach A. Clearing the air: a review of the effects of particulate matter air pollution on human health. J Med Toxicol. 2012 Jun;8(2):166-75. doi: 10.1007/s13181-011-0203-1.
 Bonner JC. Nanoparticles as a potential cause of pleural and interstitial lung disease. Proc Am Thorac Soc. 2010 May;7(2):138-41. doi: 10.1513/pats.200907-061RM.
 Sharman JE, Cockcroft JR, Coombes JS. Cardiovascular implications of exposure to traffic air pollution during exercise. QJM. 2004 Oct;97(10):637-43.
 Diette GB , McCormack MC, Hansel NN, Breysse PN, Matsui EC. Environmental issues in managing asthma. Respir Care. 2008 May;53(5):602-15; discussion 616-7.
 Suades-González E, Gascon M, Guxens M, Sunyer J. Air Pollution and Neuropsychological Development: A Review of the Latest Evidence. Endocrinology. 2015 Oct;156(10):3473-82. doi: 10.1210/en.2015-1403. Epub 2015 Aug 4.
 Talbott EO, Arena VC, ... Stacy SL. Fine particulate matter and the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Environ Res. 2015 Jul;140:414-20. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2015.04.021. Epub 2015 May 15.
 Weisskopf MG, Kioumourtzoglou MA, Roberts AL. Air Pollution and Autism Spectrum Disorders: Causal or Confounded? Curr Environ Health Rep. 2015 Dec;2(4):430-9. doi: 10.1007/s40572-015-0073-9.
 Morales-Suárez-Varela M, Peraita-Costa I, Llopis-González A. Systematic review of the association between particulate matter exposure and autism spectrum disorders. Environ Res. 2017 Feb;153:150-160. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2016.11.022. Epub 2016 Dec 13.
 Fordyce TA, Leonhard MJ, Chang ET. A critical review of developmental exposure to particulate matter, autism spectrum disorder, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Environ Sci Health A Tox Hazard Subst Environ Eng. 2018 Jan 28;53(2):174-204. doi: 10.1080/10934529.2017.1383121. Epub 2017 Nov 20.
 Lam J, Sutton P, ... Woodruff T. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Multiple Airborne Pollutants and Autism Spectrum Disorder. PLoS One. 2016 Sep 21;11(9):e0161851. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0161851. eCollection 2016.
 Health Quality Ontario. Air cleaning technologies: an evidence-based analysis. Ont Health Technol Assess Ser. 2005;5(17):1-52. Epub 2005 Nov 1.
 Wyon DP. The effects of indoor air quality on performance and productivity. Indoor Air. 2004;14 Suppl 7:92-101.
 Barn P, Gombojav E, ... Allen RW. The effect of portable HEPA filter air cleaner use during pregnancy on fetal growth: The UGAAR randomized controlled trial. Environ Int. 2018 Sep 10. pii: S0160-4120(18)31141-3. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.08.036.
 Barn P, Gombojav E,... Allen RW. The effect of portable HEPA filter air cleaners on indoor PM2.5 concentrations and second hand tobacco smoke exposure among pregnant women in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia: The UGAAR randomized controlled trial. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Feb 15;615:1379-1389. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.09.291. Epub 2017 Oct 17.
 Morgan WJ, Crain EF, ... Inner-City Asthma Study Group. Results of a home-based environmental intervention among urban children with asthma. N Engl J Med. 2004 Sep 9;351(11):1068-80.
 Wood RA. Air filtration devices in the control of indoor allergens. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2002 Sep;2(5):397-400.
 McDonald E, Cook D, Newman T, Griffith L, Cox G, Guyatt G. Effect of air filtration systems on asthma: a systematic review of randomized trials. Chest. 2002 Nov;122(5):1535-42.
 Lanphear BP, Hornung RW, ... Kalkbrenner A. Effects of HEPA air cleaners on unscheduled asthma visits and asthma symptoms for children exposed to secondhand tobacco smoke. Pediatrics. 2011 Jan;127(1):93-101. doi: 10.1542/peds.2009-2312. Epub 2010 Dec 13.
 Francis H, Fletcher G, ... Niven R. Clinical effects of air filters in homes of asthmatic adults sensitized and exposed to pet allergens. Clin Exp Allergy. 2003 Jan;33(1):101-5.
 Myatt TA, Minegishi T, Allen JG, Macintosh DL. Control of asthma triggers in indoor air with air cleaners: a modeling analysis. Environ Health. 2008 Aug 6;7:43. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-7-43.
 van der Heide S, van Aalderen WM, ... de Monchy JG. Clinical effects of air cleaners in homes of asthmatic children sensitized to pet allergens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 1999 Aug;104(2 Pt 1):447-51.
 Wood RA, Johnson EF, Van Natta ML, Chen PH, Eggleston PA. A placebo-controlled trial of a HEPA air cleaner in the treatment of cat allergy. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1998 Jul;158(1):115-20.
 Zhan Y, Johnson K, ... Schauer JJ. The influence of air cleaners on indoor particulate matter components and oxidative potential in residential households in Beijing. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Jun 1;626:507-518. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.01.024. Epub 2018 Feb 19.
 Jia-Ying L, Zhao C, ... Bao-Qing S. Efficacy of air purifier therapy in allergic rhinitis. Asian Pac J Allergy Immunol. 2018 Mar 12. doi: 10.12932/AP-010717-0109.
 Morishita M, Adar SD, ... Brook RD. Effect of Portable Air Filtration Systems on Personal Exposure to Fine Particulate Matter and Blood Pressure Among Residents in a Low-Income Senior Facility: A Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Intern Med. 2018 Oct 1;178(10):1350-1357. doi: 10.1001/jamainternmed.2018.3308.
 Yu N, Shu S, ... Zhu Y. High efficiency cabin air filter in vehicles reduces drivers' roadway particulate matter exposures and associated lipid peroxidation. PLoS One. 2017 Nov 27;12(11):e0188498. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0188498. eCollection 2017.
 Rice JL, Brigham E, ... Diette GB. The feasibility of an air purifier and secondhand smoke education intervention in homes of inner city pregnant women and infants living with a smoker. Environ Res. 2018 Jan;160:524-530. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2017.10.020. Epub 2017 Oct 29.
 Johnson L, Ciaccio C, ... Portnoy JM. Low-cost interventions improve indoor air quality and children's health. Allergy Asthma Proc. 2009 Jul-Aug;30(4):377-85. doi: 10.2500/aap.2009.30.3257.
 Batterman S, Du L, Mentz G, ... Lewis T. Particulate matter concentrations in residences: an intervention study evaluating stand-alone filters and air conditioners. Indoor Air. 2012 Jun;22(3):235-52. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-0668.2011.00761.x. Epub 2012 Feb 4.
 Barn PK, Elliott CT, ... Henderson SB. Portable air cleaners should be at the forefront of the public health response to landscape fire smoke. Environ Health. 2016 Nov 25;15(1):116.
 Padró-Martínez LT, Owusu E, ... Durant JL. A Randomized Cross-over Air Filtration Intervention Trial for Reducing Cardiovascular Health Risks in Residents of Public Housing near a Highway. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2015 Jul 10;12(7):7814-38. doi: 10.3390/ijerph120707814.
 Du L, Batterman S, ... Lewis T. Particle Concentrations and Effectiveness of Free-Standing Air Filters in Bedrooms of Children with Asthma in Detroit, Michigan. Build Environ. 2011 Oct;46(11):2303-2313.
 EPA. Indoor Air Quality. Ozone Generators that are Sold as Air Cleaners.
 Chen TM, Gokhale J, Shofer S, Kuschner WG. Outdoor air pollution: ozone health effects. Am J Med Sci. 2007 Apr;333(4):244-8.
 Atkinson RW, Butland BK, ... Anderson HR. Long-term exposure to ambient ozone and mortality: a quantitative systematic review and meta-analysis of evidence from cohort studies. BMJ Open. 2016 Feb 23;6(2):e009493. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009493.
 Bell ML, Zanobetti A, Dominici F. Who is more affected by ozone pollution? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2014 Jul 1;180(1):15-28. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwu115. Epub 2014 May 28.
 Zhao T, Markevych I, Romanos M, Nowak D, Heinrich J. Ambient ozone exposure and mental health: A systematic review of epidemiological studies. Environ Res. 2018 Aug;165:459-472. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2018.04.015. Epub 2018 May 1.
 California Air Resources Board. California Certified Air Cleaning Devices.
 Terzano C, Di Stefano F, ... Graziani E. Air pollution ultrafine particles: Toxicity beyond the lung. European review for medical and pharmacological sciences 2010 14(10):809-21.
 TNO Netherlands. Emissions Of Particulate Matter From Diesel Cars.
 Fisk WJ. Health benefits of particle filtration. Indoor Air. 2013 Oct;23(5):357-68. doi: 10.1111/ina.12036. Epub 2013 Mar 21.
 EPA. Residential Air Cleaners - A Technical Summary, 3rd Edition.
 Allen RW, Carlsten C, ... Brauer M. An air filter intervention study of endothelial function among healthy adults in a woodsmoke-impacted community. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 May 1;183(9):1222-30. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201010-1572OC. Epub 2011 Jan 21.
 Barn P, Larson T, ... Brauer M. Infiltration of forest fire and residential wood smoke: an evaluation of air cleaner effectiveness. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2008 Sep;18(5):503-11. Epub 2007 Dec 5.
 Bräuner EV, Forchhammer L, ... Loft S. Indoor particles affect vascular function in the aged: an air filtration-based intervention study. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2008 Feb 15;177(4):419-25. Epub 2007 Oct 11.
 Butz AM, Matsui EC, ... Rand C. A randomized trial of air cleaners and a health coach to improve indoor air quality for inner-city children with asthma and secondhand smoke exposure. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2011 Aug;165(8):741-8. doi: 10.1001/archpediatrics.2011.111.
 Chen R, Zhao A, ... Kan H. Cardiopulmonary benefits of reducing indoor particles of outdoor origin: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial of air purifiers. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Jun 2;65(21):2279-87. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2015.03.553.
 Cui X, Li F, ... Zhang JJ. Cardiopulmonary effects of overnight indoor air filtration in healthy non-smoking adults: A double-blind randomized crossover study. Environ Int. 2018 May;114:27-36. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2018.02.010. Epub 2018 Feb 22.
 Kajbafzadeh M, Brauer M, ... Allen RW. The impacts of traffic-related and woodsmoke particulate matter on measures of cardiovascular health: a HEPA filter intervention study. Occup Environ Med. 2015 Jun;72(6):394-400. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2014-102696. Epub 2015 Apr 20.
 Karottki DG, Spilak M, ... Loft S. An indoor air filtration study in homes of elderly: cardiovascular and respiratory effects of exposure to particulate matter. Environ Health. 2013 Dec 28;12:116. doi: 10.1186/1476-069X-12-116.
 Shao D, Du Y, ... Huang W. Cardiorespiratory responses of air filtration: A randomized crossover intervention trial in seniors living in Beijing: Beijing Indoor Air Purifier StudY, BIAPSY. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Dec 15;603-604:541-549. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.06.095. Epub 2017 Jun 20.
 Weichenthal S, Mallach G, ... Sharp D. A randomized double-blind crossover study of indoor air filtration and acute changes in cardiorespiratory health in a First Nations community. Indoor Air. 2013 Jun;23(3):175-84. doi: 10.1111/ina.12019. Epub 2013 Jan 19.
 Xu Y, Raja S, ... Wetzel LE. Effectiveness of heating, ventilation and air conditioning system with HEPA filter unit on indoor air quality and asthmatic children's health. Building and Environment 45(2) 2010, 330-337.
 Gourdji S. Review of plants to mitigate particulate matter, ozone as well as nitrogen dioxide air pollutants and applicable recommendations for green roofs in Montreal, Quebec. Environ Pollut. 2018 Oct;241:378-387. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2018.05.053. Epub 2018 May 28.
 Chen L, Liu C, Zhang L, Zou R, Zhang Z. Variation in Tree Species Ability to Capture and Retain Airborne Fine Particulate Matter (PM2.5). Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 9;7(1):3206. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-03360-1.
 Schaubroeck T, Deckmyn G,... Verheyen K. Multilayered modeling of particulate matter removal by a growing forest over time, from plant surface deposition to washoff via rainfall. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Sep 16;48(18):10785-94. doi: 10.1021/es5019724. Epub 2014 Aug 25.
 Przybysz A, Sæbø A, Hanslin HM, Gawroński SW. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as affected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time. Sci Total Environ. 2014 May 15;481:360-9. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.02.072. Epub 2014 Mar 7.
 Liang D, Ma C, ... Chen-Xi Z. Quantifying PM2.5 capture capability of greening trees based on leaf factors analyzing. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2016 Nov;23(21):21176-21186. Epub 2016 Sep 19.
 Mo L, Ma Z, ... Yu X. Assessing the Capacity of Plant Species to Accumulate Particulate Matter in Beijing, China. PLoS One. 2015 Oct 27;10(10):e0140664. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0140664. eCollection 2015.
 Weerakkody U, Dover JW, Mitchell P, Reiling K. Quantification of the traffic-generated particulate matter capture by plant species in a living wall and evaluation of the important leaf characteristics. Sci Total Environ. 2018 Sep 1;635:1012-1024. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.106. Epub 2018 Apr 24.
 Sæbø A, Popek R, ... Gawronski SW. Plant species differences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces. Sci Total Environ. 2012 Jun 15;427-428:347-54. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2012.03.084. Epub 2012 May 2.
 Chen J, Yu X, Bi H, Fu Y. Indoor simulations reveal differences among plant species in capturing particulate matter. PLoS One. 2017 May 16;12(5):e0177539. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0177539. eCollection 2017.
 Zhang T, Bai Y, Hong X, Sun L, Liu Y. Particulate matter and heavy metal deposition on the leaves of Euonymus japonicus during the East Asian monsoon in Beijing, China. PLoS One. 2017 Jun 29;12(6):e0179840. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0179840. eCollection 2017.
 Macintosh DL, Minegishi T, ... Myatt TA. The benefits of whole-house in-duct air cleaning in reducing exposures to fine particulate matter of outdoor origin: a modeling analysis. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2010 Mar;20(2):213-24. doi: 10.1038/jes.2009.16. Epub 2009 Mar 25.
 Panis LI. Cycling: health benefits and risks. Environ Health Perspect. 2011 Mar;119(3):a114; author reply a114-5. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1103227.
 Daigle CC, Chalupa DC, ... Frampton MW. Ultrafine particle deposition in humans during rest and exercise. Inhal Toxicol. 2003 May;15(6):539-52.
 Heyder J, Gebhart J, Rudolf G, et al. Deposition of particles in the human respiratory tract in the size range 0.005–15 µm. J Aerosol Sci 1986;17:811-25.
 Bennett WD, Zeman KL, Jarabek AM. Nasal contribution to breathing and fine particle deposition in children versus adults. J Toxicol Environ Health A. 2008;71(3):227-37.
 Campbell ME, Li Q, Gingrich SE, Macfarlane RG, Cheng S. Should people be physically active outdoors on smog alert days? Can J Public Health. 2005 Jan-Feb;96(1):24-8.
 Rojas-Rueda D, de Nazelle A, Teixidó O, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. Replacing car trips by increasing bike and public transport in the greater Barcelona metropolitan area: a health impact assessment study. Environ Int. 2012 Nov 15;49:100-9. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2012.08.009. Epub 2012 Sep 21.
 Hartog JJ, Boogaard H, Nijland H, Hoek G. Do the health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks? Cien Saude Colet. 2011 Dec;16(12):4731-44.
 de Nazelle A, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ, ...Lebret E. Improving health through policies that promote active travel: a review of evidence to support integrated health impact assessment. Environ Int. 2011 May;37(4):766-77. doi: 10.1016/j.envint.2011.02.003.
 Zuurbier M, Hoek G... Brunekreef B. Commuters' exposure to particulate matter air pollution is affected by mode of transport, fuel type, and route. Environ Health Perspect. 2010 Jun;118(6):783-9. doi: 10.1289/ehp.0901622. Epub 2010 Feb 25.
 Hudda N, Kostenidou E, Sioutas C, Delfino RJ, Fruin SA. Vehicle and driving characteristics that influence in-cabin particle number concentrations. Environ Sci Technol. 2011 Oct 15;45(20):8691-7. doi: 10.1021/es202025m. Epub 2011 Sep 19.
 Chuang HC, Lin LY, Hsu YW, Ma CM, Chuang KJ. In-car particles and cardiovascular health: an air conditioning-based intervention study. Sci Total Environ. 2013 May 1;452-453:309-13. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.02.097. Epub 2013 Mar 22.
 Liu S, Noth E, Eisen E, Cullen MR, Hammond K. Respirator use and its impact on particulate matter exposure in aluminum manufacturing facilities. Scand J Work Environ Health. 2018 Sep 1;44(5):547-554. doi: 10.5271/sjweh.3735. Epub 2018 May 31.
 Burton KA, Whitelaw JL, Jones AL, Davies B. Efficiency of Respirator Filter Media against Diesel Particulate Matter: A Comparison Study Using Two Diesel Particulate Sources. Ann Occup Hyg. 2016 Jul;60(6):771-9. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/mew026. Epub 2016 May 17.
 Zhou SS, Lukula S, ... Ijaz MK. Assessment of a respiratory face mask for capturing air pollutants and pathogens including human influenza and rhinoviruses. J Thorac Dis. 2018 Mar;10(3):2059-2069. doi: 10.21037/jtd.2018.03.103.
 Cherrie JW, Apsley A, Cowie ... Loh M. Effectiveness of face masks used to protect Beijing residents against particulate air pollution. Occup Environ Med. 2018 Jun;75(6):446-452. doi: 10.1136/oemed-2017-104765. Epub 2018 Apr 9.
 Grinshpun SA, Haruta H, Eninger RM, Reponen T, McKay RT, Lee SA. Performance of an N95 filtering facepiece particulate respirator and a surgical mask during human breathing: two pathways for particle penetration. J Occup Environ Hyg. 2009 Oct;6(10):593-603. doi: 10.1080/15459620903120086.
 Shi J, Lin Z, ... Kan H. Cardiovascular Benefits of Wearing Particulate-Filtering Respirators: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Environ Health Perspect. 2017 Feb;125(2):175-180. doi: 10.1289/EHP73. Epub 2016 Aug 26.
 Cho KJ, Reponen T, ... Grinshpun SA. Large particle penetration through N95 respirator filters and facepiece leaks with cyclic flow. Ann Occup Hyg. 2010 Jan;54(1):68-77. doi: 10.1093/annhyg/mep062. Epub 2009 Aug 21.
 Winter S, Thomas JH, Stephens DP, Davis JS. Particulate face masks for protection against airborne pathogens - one size does not fit all: an observational study. Crit Care Resusc. 2010 Mar;12(1):24-7.
 Brook RD, Rajagopalan S, ... Kaufman JD. Particulate matter air pollution and cardiovascular disease: An update to the scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation. 2010 Jun 1;121(21):2331-78. doi: 10.1161/CIR.0b013e3181dbece1. Epub 2010 May 10.
 Peden DB. The epidemiology and genetics of asthma risk associated with air pollution. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2005 Feb;115(2):213-9; quiz 220.
 Chen Z, Salam MT, ... Gilliland FD. Chronic effects of air pollution on respiratory health in Southern California children: findings from the Southern California Children's Health Study. J Thorac Dis. 2015 Jan;7(1):46-58. doi: 10.3978/j.issn.2072-1439.2014.12.20.
 Bell ML, Zanobetti A, Dominici F. Evidence on vulnerability and susceptibility to health risks associated with short-term exposure to particulate matter: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Epidemiol. 2013 Sep 15;178(6):865-76. doi: 10.1093/aje/kwt090. Epub 2013 Jul 25.
 Ji H, Khurana Hershey GK. Genetic and epigenetic influence on the response to environmental particulate matter. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012 Jan;129(1):33-41. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2011.11.008.
 Hussain S, Laumbach R, ... Kipen H. Controlled exposure to diesel exhaust causes increased nitrite in exhaled breath condensate among subjects with asthma. J Occup Environ Med. 2012 Oct;54(10):1186-91. doi: 10.1097/JOM.0b013e31826bb64c.
 Wright RJ, Brunst KJ. Programming of respiratory health in childhood: influence of outdoor air pollution. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2013 Apr;25(2):232-9. doi: 10.1097/MOP.0b013e32835e78cc.
 Laumbach RJ. Outdoor air pollutants and patient health. Am Fam Physician. 2010 Jan 15;81(2):175-80.
 Rich DQ, Kipen HM, ... Zhang JJ. Association between changes in air pollution levels during the Beijing Olympics and biomarkers of inflammation and thrombosis in healthy young adults. JAMA. 2012 May 16;307(19):2068-78. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.3488.
 Peters A, Dockery DW, Muller JE, Mittleman MA. Increased particulate air pollution and the triggering of myocardial infarction. Circulation. 2001 Jun 12;103(23):2810-5.
 Kelly FJ, Fussell JC. Air pollution and public health: emerging hazards and improved understanding of risk. Environ Geochem Health. 2015 Aug;37(4):631-49. doi: 10.1007/s10653-015-9720-1. Epub 2015 Jun 4.
 Downs SH, Schindler C, Liu LJ, ... SAPALDIA Team. Reduced exposure to PM10 and attenuated age-related decline in lung function. N Engl J Med. 2007 Dec 6;357(23):2338-47.
 Bayer-Oglesby L, Grize L, ... Braun-Fahrländer C. Decline of ambient air pollution levels and improved respiratory health in Swiss children. Environ Health Perspect. 2005 Nov;113(11):1632-7.
 Pope CA 3rd, Ezzati M, Dockery DW. Fine-particulate air pollution and life expectancy in the United States. N Engl J Med. 2009 Jan 22;360(4):376-86. doi: 10.1056/NEJMsa0805646.
 Schindler C, Keidel D, ... Rochat T. Improvements in PM10 exposure and reduced rates of respiratory symptoms in a cohort of Swiss adults (SAPALDIA). Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2009 Apr 1;179(7):579-87. doi: 10.1164/rccm.200803-388OC. Epub 2009 Jan 16.
 Zhong J, Karlsson O, ... Baccarelli AA. B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pilot human intervention trial. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Mar 28;114(13):3503-3508. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1618545114. Epub 2017 Mar 13.
 Weichenthal S. Selected physiological effects of ultrafine particles in acute cardiovascular morbidity. Environ Res. 2012 May;115:26-36. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2012.03.001. Epub 2012 Mar 31.
 Auerbach NA, Walker WD, Walker DA. Effects of Roadside Disturbance on Substrate and Vegetation Properties in Arctic Tundra. Ecological Applications 7(1) 1997: 218-235.
 Cape JN. Direct damage to vegetation caused by acid rain and polluted cloud: definition of critical levels for forest trees. Environ Pollut. 1993;82(2):167-80.
 Singh S, Elumalai SP, Pal AK. Rain pH estimation based on the particulate matter pollutants and wet deposition study. Sci Total Environ. 2016 Sep 1;563-564:293-301. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.04.066. Epub 2016 Apr 30.
 Grantz DA, Garner JH, Johnson DW. Ecological effects of particulate matter. Environ Int. 2003 Jun;29(2-3):213-39.
 Eller BM. Road dust induced increase of leaf temperature. Environmental Pollution 1970 13(2) 99-107.
 Farmer AM. The effects of dust on vegetation--a review. Environ Pollut. 1993;79(1):63-75.
 Bilotta GS1, Burnside NG, ...Davy-Bowker J. Developing environment-specific water quality guidelines for suspended particulate matter. Water Res. 2012 May 1;46(7):2324-32. doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2012.01.055. Epub 2012 Feb 8.
 Shao T, Zheng H, ... Zhang B. Influence of environmental factors on absorption characteristics of suspended particulate matter and CDOM in Liaohe River watershed, northeast China. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2017 Aug;24(23):19322-19337. doi: 10.1007/s11356-017-9480-9. Epub 2017 Jul 1.
 Baalousha M, Stoll S, ... Le Coustumer P. Suspended particulate matter determines physical speciation of Fe, Mn, and trace metals in surface waters of Loire watershed. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2018 Feb 10. doi: 10.1007/s11356-018-1416-5.
 Liu C, Fan C, ... Zhou Q. Effects of riverine suspended particulate matter on post-dredging metal re-contamination across the sediment-water interface. Chemosphere. 2016 Feb;144:2329-35. doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.11.010. Epub 2015 Nov 21.
 Hudda N, Simon MC, ... Durant JL. Aviation Emissions Impact Ambient Ultrafine Particle Concentrations in the Greater Boston Area. Environ Sci Technol. 2016 Aug 16;50(16):8514-21. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.6b01815. Epub 2016 Aug 4.
 Psanis C, Triantafyllou E, ... Biskos G. Particulate matter pollution from aviation-related activity at a small airport of the Aegean Sea Insular Region. Sci Total Environ. 2017 Oct 15;596-597:187-193. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2017.04.078. Epub 2017 Apr 19.
 Hudda N, Simon MC, Zamore W, Durant JL. Aviation-Related Impacts on Ultrafine Particle Number Concentrations Outside and Inside Residences near an Airport. Environ Sci Technol. 2018 Feb 20;52(4):1765-1772. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.7b05593. Epub 2018 Feb 7.
 Wayson RL, Fleming GG, Lovinelli R. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2009 Jan;59(1):91-100.
 Bishop AE, Polak JM. Pulmonary epithelium. Methods Enzymol. 2006;418:333-49.
 Enkhbat U, Rule AM, ... Williams DL. Exposure to PM2.5 and Blood Lead Level in Two Populations in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2016 Feb 15;13(2):214. doi: 10.3390/ijerph13020214.
 Chen X, Liu J, ... Pan J. Urban particulate matter (PM) suppresses airway antibacterial defence. Respir Res. 2018 Jan 8;19(1):5. doi: 10.1186/s12931-017-0700-0.
 Grunig G, Marsh LM, ... Park SH. Perspective: ambient air pollution: inflammatory response and effects on the lung's vasculature. Pulm Circ. 2014 Mar;4(1):25-35. doi: 10.1086/674902.
 Clark B, Masters S, Edwards M. Profile sampling to characterize particulate lead risks in potable water. Environ Sci Technol. 2014 Jun 17;48(12):6836-43. doi: 10.1021/es501342j. Epub 2014 Jun 6.
 Shen H, Peters TM, ... Ault AP. Elevated Concentrations of Lead in Particulate Matter on the Neighborhood-Scale in Delhi, India As Determined by Single Particle Analysis. Environ Sci Technol. 2016 May 17;50(10):4961-70. doi: 10.1021/acs.est.5b06202. Epub 2016 May 2.
Join Over 30,000+ Subscribers!